Additional Science - Biology, AQA, Revision Notes

Combination of class notes, revision guide notes, BBC Bitesize notes and diagrams. This resource I made for myself got me an A alongside past papers, good luck!

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  • Created on: 04-01-13 23:43
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Additional Science Revision
Biology, Chemistry & Physics
All animals and plants are made of cells. Animal cells and plant cells have
features in common such as a nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane,
mitochondria and ribosomes. Plant cells also have a cell wall and often
have chloroplasts and a permanent vacuole. Note that cells may be
specialised to carry out a special function.
1. Animal and plant cells have structures that enable them to do
their jobs
2. Plant cells have some structures which animal cells don't have
Remember that the cell membrane can control the movements in and
out of the cell, NOT the cell wall in plants, this is there for support
Animal and Plant Cells:
Part Function
Nucleus Contains genetic material which
controls the cell, it acts as the
brain of the cell.
Cytoplasm Most chemical reactions take place
in the cytoplasm, controlled by
Cell Membrane Controls the movement of
substances in and out of the cell.
Mitochondria Most energy is released by
respiration here.
Ribosomes Protein synthesis happens here.
Plant Cells Only:
Part Function
Cell Wall Strengthens the cell
Chloroplasts Contains chlorophyll which absorbs
light for photosynthesis
Permanent Vacuole Filled with cell sap to keep cell

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Specialised Cells:
Cells may be specialised for a particular function. Their structure will
allow them to carry this function out. Here are some examples:
Cell Function Adaptation
Absorbs light Packed with
energy for chloroplasts.
photosynthesis Regular shaped,
closely packed cells
form a layer for
efficient absorption
Leaf Cell
of sunlight.
Absorbs water and Long `fingerlike'
mineral ions from process with very
soil thin wall, which
gives a large
surface area.…read more

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Differentiation happens much earlier in the development of
animals than it does in plants
In an exam, you might be given a diagram of a cell to label and state the
adaptations and the specialised functions.
Remember not all plant cells have chloroplasts
Don't confuse chloroplasts with chlorophyll!
Quick Revision:
1. Name three structures common to both plant and animal cells
a) Mitochondria
b) Ribosomes
c) Nucleus
2. Where does aerobic respiration take place?
3.…read more

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Lungs Oxygen Alveolar air Blood
space circulating
around the
Remember, particles continue to move from high to low concentration
while there is a concentration gradient.
In the lungs, the blood will carry on taking in oxygen from the alveolar
air spaces provided the concentration of oxygen there is greater than in
the blood. Oxygen diffuses across the alveolar walls into the blood, and
the circulation takes the oxygenrich blood away.
Diffusion does not require energy from the cell.…read more

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Quick Revision ­ end of chapter, Cells:
1. What is the function of ribosomes?
To make protein
2. Suggest how a sperm cell is adapted to its function.
A sperm cell is adapted to its function as it has a long tail so it is
streamlined and the middle section is filled with mitochondria to
provide energy for the sperm to swim
3. Why does diffusion require no energy from the cell?
Because the molecules have energy which gives them random
4.…read more

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Plants absorb water from their roots and carbon dioxide through their
leaves. The chlorophyll traps the energy needed for photosynthesis. In
photosynthesis the sugar, glucose (a carbohydrate) is made. Oxygen is
given as a waste gas.
Learn the equation for photosynthesis and make sure you can explain
the results of experiments on photosynthesis.
Quick Revision:
1. Where does the energy for photosynthesis come from?
The sun
2. What are the two substances necessary to make the glucose?
Carbon dioxide and water
3.…read more

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If it gets too cold,
the rate of photosynthesis will
decrease. Plants
cannot photosynthesise if it gets
too hot.
If certain things are in short supply, they will slow down the rate
photosynthesis. Plant growers need to know this, otherwise they
could waste money
A lack of light would slow down the rate of photosynthesis as light
provides energy for the process chlorophyll traps the light. Even on
sunny days, light may be limited, e.g. on the floor of a wood or
rainforest.…read more

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How plants use glucose:
The product of photosynthesis is glucose. Glucose is used for
respiration. Glucose is also combined with other nutrients (mineral ions)
by the plant to produce new materials.
Glucose is stored, by some plants, as insoluble starch. It is stored as an
insoluble substance so that it has no effect on osmosis.
Plants use glucose for energy (respiration).
Most plants can store glucose as starch.
Quick Revision:
1.…read more

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Plants produce sugars through photosynthesis
However, just like animals, they need other substances to grow
Quick Revision:
1. How do plants take minerals from the soil?
Through the roots
2. Why do plants need magnesium ions?
To make chlorophyll
3. What does `deficiency' mean?
Deficiency means lacking in a certain product
Quick Revision ­ end of chapter, Plants:
1. How is light energy trapped by a plant?
By chloroplasts
2. You are growing some cuttings in the greenhouse.…read more


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