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Additional Science Revision
Biology, Chemistry & Physics



All animals and plants are made of cells. Animal cells and plant cells have
features in common such as a nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane,
mitochondria and ribosomes. Plant cells also have a cell wall and often
have chloroplasts and a permanent…

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Specialised Cells:

Cells may be specialised for a particular function. Their structure will
allow them to carry this function out. Here are some examples:

Cell Function Adaptation
Absorbs light Packed with
energy for chloroplasts.
photosynthesis Regular shaped,
closely packed cells
form a layer for

efficient absorption
Leaf Cell
of sunlight.…

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2. Differentiation happens much earlier in the development of
animals than it does in plants

In an exam, you might be given a diagram of a cell to label and state the
adaptations and the specialised functions.
Remember not all plant cells have chloroplasts
Don't confuse chloroplasts with…

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Lungs Oxygen Alveolar air Blood
space circulating
around the

Remember, particles continue to move from high to low concentration
while there is a concentration gradient.

In the lungs, the blood will carry on taking in oxygen from the alveolar
air spaces provided the concentration of oxygen there is greater…

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Quick Revision ­ end of chapter, Cells:
1. What is the function of ribosomes?
To make protein

2. Suggest how a sperm cell is adapted to its function.
A sperm cell is adapted to its function as it has a long tail so it is
streamlined and the middle section…

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Photosynthesis is a chemical change that happens in the leaves of green
plants. Green plants absorb light by using chlorophyll in their leaves. They
use it to react carbon dioxide with water to make a sugar called glucose.
The glucose is then used in respiration or converted into…

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Plants absorb water from their roots and carbon dioxide through their
leaves. The chlorophyll traps the energy needed for photosynthesis. In
photosynthesis the sugar, glucose (a carbohydrate) is made. Oxygen is
given as a waste gas.

Learn the equation for photosynthesis and make sure you can explain

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If it gets too cold,
the rate of photosynthesis will
decrease. Plants
cannot photosynthesise if it gets
too hot.

If certain things are in short supply, they will slow down the rate
photosynthesis. Plant growers need to know this, otherwise they
could waste money

A lack of light…

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How plants use glucose:

The product of photosynthesis is glucose. Glucose is used for
respiration. Glucose is also combined with other nutrients (mineral ions)
by the plant to produce new materials.

Glucose is stored, by some plants, as insoluble starch. It is stored as an
insoluble substance so that it…

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Plants produce sugars through photosynthesis
However, just like animals, they need other substances to grow

Quick Revision:
1. How do plants take minerals from the soil?
Through the roots
2. Why do plants need magnesium ions?
To make chlorophyll
3. What does `deficiency' mean?
Deficiency means lacking…


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