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Bio B2 revision notes

What is the function of a cell's nucleus? What is the function of the ribosomes?

To control the activities of the cell To act as the site for protein synthesis

Which of these is a part found in plant cells but not in animal cells?…

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chloroplasts, permanent vacuole, cell wall,


Nucleus- controls all activities of the cell. It contains the genes on the chromosomes

Cytoplasm- A liquid gel in which most of the chemical reactions needed for life take place.

Cell membrane- Controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell


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Tissues and organs:

Tissue- group of cells with similar structure+ function working together.

Glandular tissue- contain secretory cells that produce substances such as enzymes and hormones.

Epithelial tissue- covers the outside of your body as well as your internal organs.

In PLANTS: -epidermal tissue: cover the plant.

-mesophyll tissue: contain…

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We can manipulate the levels of light, temperature and co2 artificially to increase rate of

How plants use glucose:

During photosynthesis, plant and algal cells use insoluble glucose for:


-to convert into insoluble starch for storage

-to make fats or oils for storage

-to make fats, proteins or…

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Transect: Line transect is common. They are NOT random. Stretch tape between two points. Sample
organisms along line at regular intervals . You can measure factors like light, soil that affect growth
along the line.

Proteins, catalysts and enzymes:

Protein molecules are made up of long chains of amino acids…

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The acidic liquid coming from your stomach needs to become an alkaline mix, so

Your liver makes a greenish yellow alkaline mix (bile). It is stored in your gall bladder.
As food comes into the small intestine from the stomach, bile is squirted on it.
Bile neutralises acid. Makes alkaline.…

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Most of the reactions in aerobic respiration take place inside the mitochondria.

The energy released during respiration is used to build large molecules from smaller ones and
allow muscles to contract. In mammals and birds it allows them to maintain and steady body

The effect of exercise on the…

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Aerobic respiration releases more than lactic acid to be:

anaerobic respiration. Broken down to form carbon dioxide and water.

Cell division and growth:

Different forms of the same gene- alleles.

Chromosomes found in nucleus of cell chromosomes contain genes genes are made of DNA


Body cells divide by mitosis…

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Embryonic stem cells (from human embryos) and adult stem cells (from adult bone marrow) can be
made to differentiate into many different types of cells.

Stem cells have the potential to treat previously incurable conditions. We may be able to grow nerve
cells or whole new organs for people who…

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They can be produced from very tiny samples of DNA from body fluids such as blood, saliva and

Each individual has their own pattern, which can be used to identify you.

Inheritance in action:

Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. In 22 cases, each chromosome in the pair is…


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