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AQA GCSE Biology Unit 3
ACTIVE TRANSPORT is the movement of a substance against a concentration gradient. This uses
up energy from respiration (found in the intestines and the kidneys) for absorption and
re-absorption.

Two main ways in which substances move in and out of cells:

DIFFUSION is the net…

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The Breathing System
Breathe out- Ribcage down and out, Diaphragm up (domed shape) forcing carbon dioxide out of
the lungs

Breathe in- Ribcage up and out, Diaphragm down (flattened)

AIR MOVES INTO THE MOUTH, DOWN THE TRACHEA, DOWN A BRONCHI, DOWN INTO THE
BRONCHIOLES AND INTO THE ALVEOLI

The part…

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Our breathing system takes air IN and OUT of the body, and helps the body to salvage
oxygen required for respiration and to get rid of waste carbon dioxide produced when cells
respire.
Alveoli provide a large, moist surface area with a rich blood supply and have thin walls to…

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The Circulatory System
Oxygenated blood is pumped to the heart from the lungs, and from the body to the heart
De- oxygenated blood is pumped from the heart to the lungs and from the body back to the
heart




ARTERIES: CARRY BLOOD AWAY FROM THE HEART

VEINS: CARRY BLOOD TO…

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BLOOD...
WHITE BLOOD CELLS: HELP TO FIGHT INFECTION

There are two different types of white blood cells;

Phagocytes: engulf and ingest the foreign body/ bacteria

Lymphocytes: create unique antibodies that are designed to specifically target the bacteria/disease
etc the body is being faced with. The antibodies created latch on to…

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HAEMOGLOBIN: RELEASES OXYGEN INTO CELLS substance which gains oxygen from the lungs
to form OXYHAEMOGLOBIN

Exchange of materials in plants
Plants need to exchange like humans and animals do, and they too also use the three methods of
exchanging materials; DIFFUSION, OSMOSIS & ACTIVE TRANSPORT

DIFFUSION: to get carbon dioxide…

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dark, the carbon dioxide produced when the leaf cells respire is used instead. THEREFORE leaves
are well adapted to CONTROL INPUT & OUTPUT of carbon dioxide.




THE STOMATA

Plants have small openings on the underside of their leaves that can
be opened when the plant needs carbon dioxide; however the…

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-leaves have a waxy cuticle layers that waterproof the plant

-WILTING; wilting occurs when the plant looses water faster than it is gaining from the roots. The
plant hangs down which greatly reduces the surface area for water loss.




The Kidneys
Protein is vital for growth and repair, however sometimes…

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Kidney Problems & Dialysis
Kidneys can fail because of an infection, a bad case of poisoning, injury with severe loss of blood
or very high blood pressure. Fortunately kidney failure is uncommon. It is possible to live with
only one kidney however if both kidneys fail options open are a…

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If the patient has a dialysis machine, it can be carried out at home
Longer living life

Cons

Inconvenience- hospital visits have to take place 3 times a week
Time consuming- dialysis must be carried out for 3-4 hours 3 times a week
Expensive


Kidney transplant- Advantages and Disadvantages

Pros…

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