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Models of addiction

There are different models of addiction, these are the biological model, the
cognitive model and the social learning model.

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Initiation ­ this refers to the process where individuals start to become addictive

Maintance ­ this is the process whereby people continue to behave addictively
even in the face of adverse consequences

Relapse ­ this is the process whereby individuals who have managed to give
their addictive habit start to…

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They are activated in pleasure.
Naltexrexone ­ this is an alcohol treatment, which prevents opiod receptors, and
this also prevents effects of alcohol.

KOCH AND LE MOAL says drugs dependence is to do with neuroadptations.
They state that psychoactive drug's change the brains wiring. If stopped, the
changes are…

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There are different degrees of addiction.

Bandura ­ Bobo doll
Children learnt via observation
Some one who is reinforced (operant) their behaviour is more likely yo be
Vicarious reinforcement ­ reinforcement received indirectly by observing
someone else and being reinforced
Imitating someone we admire

Cognitive labelling model
An alcoholic…

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Relapse person giving up, relapse might be less likely if they have
`relearnt' the addictive behaviour

all individuals are equally suspicious

X animals
X learning theories are reductionalists
can explain differences

Cognitive is thinking. This emphasises the habitual ways people deal with life
events may…

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X relative success of cognitive treatment of addicition support there is some
cognitive basis
X publication bias studies show a link between positive expectations and
drinking behaviour. But not all studies are publlished so we get an
unrepresentative view

Smoking produces a phsyical addicition…

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In a US study, it suggests strong links between smoking and poor school
records, low selfesteem no sport, and other illegal drug taking.
Cognitive factors
Smokers are seen as possessing irrational thoughts for instance that smoking
improves cognitive functionoing or calm nerves. Such dysfunctional ideas can be

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Stopping gambling seems to result in the same kind of withdrawal symptoms
associated with stopping drugs. ROSENTHAL ET AL (1992) found that over
60% of pathology gamblers, reported physical withdraw and these could be
compared with withdrawal of drugs.
A number of studies have shown a link between potential brain…

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Vulnerability of addiction
Self esteem
Teenagers are more likely to be linked with low self esteem and have addictive
behaviours. Higher rates of depression and suicide DEVERENSKY 2003

LEVY 2009 ­ low self esteem increase the chances of developing addiction.
Genetic vulnerability. Several factors might be required have an addiction.…

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Men are more likely to gamble because they are more competitive. Recent
evidence has shown that there is an increase of women gamblers. With females,
they are more likely to be addicted to smoking because of the risks of the
consequences. (FOX 1994)
However, in gambling more boys are…


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