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Addiction can be defined in general as a condition where an individual relies on substances,
such as drugs like methamphetamines, or engages in certain activities, like gambling, which they may
find pleasurable but through the repeated indulgence in these activities their behaviour becomes
compulsive and interferes with their ability…

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allows them to escape unpleasant feelings of depression, stress, and anxiety and leads to a way of
coping with tension.

However some people use drugs as a form of medication i.e. a person suffering from social
anxiety might take drugs in order to stop feeling repressed and become less afraid…

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The most common studies carried out to conclude whether genes can determine whether or
not addiction occurs in an individual, are family studies. Family studies of alcohol use disorders have
shown high rates amongst relatives. Cases like these infer that potentially genes for addiction can be
genetically transferred. Merikangas et…

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concluded that some people are particularly vulnerable to the added rush given by dopamineenhancing
drugs, but others have a dopamine circuitry that can't take the additional stimulation. This would
explain why some people, after experimenting with drugs, night go on to develop an addiction, while
others, given the same initial…

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alcoholism. This may explain why people who have drug or alcohol addictions in these studies all had
the gene and non addicts don't have the gene.

But there are some good implications that have been brought about from the research done on
the biochemistry of the brain of an addicted…

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the reward would be the feelings of calmness and relaxation they get after administering the drug,
similarly for someone addicted to gambling the reward would be when they win.

In 1984 a psychologist called Custer suggested that the difference between those who go on to
become problem gamblers and those…

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to movie smoking was a strong predictor of whether they had started smoking at the one year

People are known to associate smoking with rewards such as relaxation and a method of
coping with stress. Young people want access to social networks and they find that smoking can

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Too extinguish the addiction gambling must be consistently regarded with negative or mutual
feelings. This is hard to do because of the previous positive feelings that have been learned to
associate with gambling.

People want to continue to feel the reinforcement by maintain the habit. Smokers associate
having a cigarette…

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In particular they tend to underestimate the amount of money they put in whilst overestimating their

There are two theories that try to explain the cognitive approach to addiction theory of
reasoned addiction and the theory of planned behaviour. Both theories provide explanations for why
people might begin to…

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Both the theory of planned behaviour and the theory of reasoned addiction can apply to the
initiation of substance related addiction and activity related addiction. For instance an activity like
gambling can become addictive because it provides positive feelings which lead to positive thoughts
about gambling these thoughts are very…


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