Geography definitions

  • Created by: 123liv
  • Created on: 14-04-17 15:44
Command government
Where macro-economics policy and entrepreneurial activity is controlled by the State. The Government decides what to produce, how to produce it and who to produce it for - but with some freedom for individual decisions.
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Commodity trading exchanges
These are where various commodities (i.e. raw or primary products) are traded. Most commodity markets across the world trade in agricultural products and other raw materials (like wheat, barley, coffee etc.) and contracts based on them.
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Coral bleaching
The loss of colour of corals. Under stress, such as a change in water temperature or a bacterial infection, coral will expel the symbiotic unicellular age which give it its colour.
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Devaluation
The reduction in the value of the currency of one country when it is exchanges for the money of another country
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Digital blackout
Where people are without some or all of the following: e-mail, internet, television and telephone connections. This may be because of a malfunction or because of a switch to new technology
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Ecosystem diversity
The concept that biodiversity (i.e. the varied range of flora and fauna) is essential for the functioning and/or sustainability of an ecosystem
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El Niño
A southerly warm ocean current, which develops off the coast of Ecuador about fourteen times a century. It is associated with major variations in tropical climates
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Electronic colonialism
This is a theory that electronic mass media (film, TV, the Internet and commercials) are having an impact on the minds of audiences around the world, making them think along the same lines and receptive to the same influences.
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Electronic colonialism contd.
This 'electronic empire' is not based on military power or land acquisition, but on controlling the mind - and the English language is the means by which it achieves its ends.
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Energy poverty
When a country or region has insufficient access to reliable sources of power
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Energy surplus
When a country or region has more than enough sources of power for its needs and is able to export its surplus power to other countries.
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Euro-centric
Seeing things from a European point of view
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Formal economy
The economy that is regulated by the State. It is economic activity that is taxed and monitored but the Government; and is included in the Government's Gross National Product (GNP)
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Futures market
This is where futures are traded. A future is a financial contract obligating the buyer to purchase an asset (or the seller to sell an asset ), such as a physical commodity, at a predetermined future date an price.
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Genetic diversity
The theory that genetic diversity and biodiversity are dependent on each other - that diversity within a species is necessary to maintain diversity among species, and vice versa.
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Genetic modification
Manipulation of DNA by splitting the DNA molecule and rejoining it to form a hybrid molecule. This bypasses biological restraints to genetic exchange and is used in agriculture to produce 'transgenic' plants, which have greater resistance to pests
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Genetic modification contd.
herbicides or harsh environmental conditions.
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Gini co-efficient
A measure of the difference between a given distribution of some variable, like population or income, an a perfectly even distribution
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Hegemon
The controlling country of organisation within a particular grouping or confederacy.
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High-technology
The most modern methods and machines, especially electronic ones.
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Ideology
A set of ideas that an economic or political system is based on, or a set of beliefs that influences the way people behave.
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Informal economy
All economic activities that fall outside the formal economy regulated by the State. It is economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by the Government; and is not included in the Government's Gross National Product (GNP)
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ICT
All technologies involved in the manipulation and communication of information
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Infrastructure
The basic systems and services that are necessary for a country or an organisation
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Irrigation
The supply of water to the land by means of channels, streams and sprinklers in order to permit the growth of crops
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La Niña
An extensive cooling of the central and eastern Pacific. Globally La Niña means that parts of the world that normally experience dry weather will be drier and those with wet weather will be wetter. It typically lasts for 12 months
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Low- carbon standard
Initiative first introduced in California in 2007, aimed at reducing the carbon intensity of transportation fuel by 10% by 2020. Fuel providers can choose how to achieve this target by various means, including blending low-carbon ethanol into petrol,
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Low-carbon standard contd.
buying credits from utilities supplying electricity to electric cars, and diversifying into low-carbon hydrogen as a fuel for motor vehicles
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Multilateral aid
Foreign aid (in the shape of money, expertise, education or technology) from a group of countries or donors to a single country
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Nationalist
A person (or political party) who feels that their country should be independent and has great love and pride for their country. But is can also mean people who think their country is better than any other
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Neo-liberalism
The doctrine that market exchange is an ethic in itself, capable of acting as a guide for all human action. Under neo-liberalism, State interventions in the economy are minimised, while the obligations of the State to provide for the welfare of its
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Neo-liberalism contd.
citizens are diminished.
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NPP
PProduction is the production of chemical energy in organic compounds by living organisms. It's the rate at which the plants in an ecosystem produce net useful chemical energy. Some NPP goes towards growth and reproduction of primary producers,
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NPP contd.
while some will be consumed by herbivores
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Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO)
Legal organisation created by private organisations or people with no participation or representation by any government. Where NGOs are funded by govts. the NGO maintains its non-governmental status by excluding Govt. representatives from membership
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NGOs contd.
in the organisation
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Pervasive
Existing in all parts, or spreading gradually to affect all parts. Technology is spreading everywhere pervasively
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Poverty line
The official level of income that is necessary to be able to buy the basic things you need such as food and clothes and to pay for somewhere to live
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Privatisation
The sale of a business or industry so that it is no longer owned by the Government
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Security premium
The extra cost built into the price of oil to allow for any disruption in supply
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Segregation
The act or policy of separating people of different races, religions or sexes and treating them differently
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Species diversity
A measure of the diversity within an ecological community that incorporates both species richness (the number of species in a community) and the evenness of species' abundance.
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Subsidiary companies
Companies that are controlled by a bigger and more powerful company
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Sustainable use
A strategy of reducing the environmental impacts associated with resource use and to do so in a growing economy. This would require changes in consumption patterns, better education, new technologies and higher prices for exploiting ecosystems
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Tariff
A tax that is paid on good coming into or out of a country
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Technology poor
Places and people who lack access to a regular and reliable source of electricity are technology poor. Where there is electricity, there may not be access to the internet. The gap between digital 'haves' and 'have-nots' is sometimes referred to as
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Tech poor contd.
the digital divide
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Technology rich
Places and people who have access to reliable electricity and to a good communications infrastructure are technology rich
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Tied aid
Where foreign aid benefits the donor in the shape of interest payments, access to new markets or by political allegiance. Tied aid sometimes has to be spent in the country providing the aid (the donor country), or in a group of selected countries.
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Urbanisation
The migration of rural populations into towns and cities. It indicates a change of employment structure from agriculture and cottage industries to mass production and service industries
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Value-added
The additional value of a good over the cost of commodities used to produce it from the previous stage of production. It refers to the contribution of the factors of production (land, labour, enterprise and capital), to raising the value of a product
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Water rights
The legal right of a user to use water from a water source, e.g. a river, stream, pond or source of groundwater
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Water wars
International conflict as a result of pressure on water supplies. This is an increasing possibility as a growing and increasingly urbanised global population will increase demand for food and water, at the same time as climate change and other trends
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contd.
put greater pressure on their supply
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World water gap
The difference between those people, nearly 2/3 of the world's population, who live in water poverty (with either a physical and/or economic scarcity of water) and those who have ready and reliable access to water for drinking and sanitation
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Zonation
The distribution of organisms in biographic zones
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Emerging superpowers
These are further away from superpower status. E.g. Russia and India have powerful energy resources but no other influential factors
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Regional powers
Play a political and economic role in processes in their continent e.g. Japan.
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Uni-polar world
One superpower
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Bi-polar world
Two opposing superpowers
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Multi-polar world
Three or more superpowers
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Overseas aid
The transfer of resources at non-commercial rates by one donor country or organisation to another (the recipient)
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Investment
Involves expenditure on a project with the expectation of financial, social or political returns. TNCs invest for profit.
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Cumulative causation
A process through which tendencies for economic growth are self-reinforcing; an expression of the multiplier effect, it tends to favor major cities and core regions over less-advantaged peripheral regions
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Urban deprivation
A standard of living below that of the majority in a particular society that involves hardships and lack of access to resources. Places suffering from urban deprivation have visible differences in housing and economic opportunities between the rich
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contd.
living alongside poor people.
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Brown agenda
Associated with economic development and has two components - environmental health and problems from rapid industrialisation
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Green agenda
Focuses on the impact of development on the natural environment
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Blue agenda
Looks at water quality and supply
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Humanitarian aid
Aims to alleviate suffering in the short term e.g. in response to disasters like earthquakes or drought
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Development aid
Aims to address poverty in the longer term
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Project aid
Is tied to large-scale schemes like the construction of major dams
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Voluntary aid
Tends to come from NGOs that raise money in developed countries for use on small-scale projects, e.g. to sponsor a village or build and equip a medical centre.
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Water transfer schemes
Moves water across regions from surplus to deficit
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Gene revolution
Genetically modified seeds to build up resistance to pests, change taste etc. e.g. GM soybean cultivated in Latin America.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

These are where various commodities (i.e. raw or primary products) are traded. Most commodity markets across the world trade in agricultural products and other raw materials (like wheat, barley, coffee etc.) and contracts based on them.

Back

Commodity trading exchanges

Card 3

Front

The loss of colour of corals. Under stress, such as a change in water temperature or a bacterial infection, coral will expel the symbiotic unicellular age which give it its colour.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The reduction in the value of the currency of one country when it is exchanges for the money of another country

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where people are without some or all of the following: e-mail, internet, television and telephone connections. This may be because of a malfunction or because of a switch to new technology

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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