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1.Industrial and Commercial
practice…read more

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Email Email is the simplest form of electronic communication ICT
Advantages Disadvantages
Quick, easy and convenient to interact around the world. Impersonal ­ no emotions can be shown, may cause
Anyone with a computer can use email. Spamming of irrelevant emails maybe with inappropriate content.
E-mails can be saved as a dated record of communication. Lots of emails hard to keep up with.
Documents can be attached electronically and saved easily. Privacy and security issues.
Simple and easy to use. Limitations to file size attachments.
EDI ­ electronic data interchange Used for:
Transmitting large CAD
EDI is a way for companies to do `paperless' business by transferring drawings, financial info and
documents through a computer network instead of post. payment in electronic form
· When the document is received, the EDI translator translates the document from
the standard form to their applications format, to ensure that the data sent from one
company is converted to a format that another can use.
Advantages Disadvantages
Saves money by eliminating need for printing paper etc. Incompatibility with some companies due to standard document
Saves time as information is transferred digitally. Software needs updating regularly.
Improves customer service, fewer errors. Expensive to initially setup.
Efficient EDI processes ­ better customer service ­ wider Limits trading to only companies with EDI.
customer base.…read more

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ISDN ­ integrated services digital networks
· ISDN is a data transfer technology which provides fully integrated · Allows huge amounts of
digital services through telephone networks. It combine services information to be transferred
such as internet and telephone into one package. across computer networks at high
· ISDN involves the digitalisation of the telephone network, · Enables users to have additional
which enables voice, data, text, graphics, music etc to be phone lines installed so that the
transmitted over the telephone line. internet can be used at the same
time as the telephone.
Type of Broadband Description Advantages Disadvantages
ASDL A way of sending data along an existing Easy to install Downloading information is
telephone line. faster than sending.
(asymmetric digital
subscriber line)
Cable Made up of optical fibres that carry more Easy to install Only available in cities and large
information than a telephone cable. Fast connection towns.
Wireless Wi-Fi connections made by transmitting Not restricted by the local Can suffer interference in built-
the internet using radio signals. Wireless telephone exchange up areas.
local area networks (LANs) can be built Fast connection
providing internet to a number of houses.
3G Offered by mobile networks allowing Internet connectivity on Restrictions on attachments
mobile phones to connect wherever there the move that can be opened.
is reception.
Satellite One-way and two-way connections. One- Available anywhere Reasonably expensive
way is faster in one direction. Two-way is Bad weather can cause
fast in both directions. connection problems…read more

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Videoconferencing Dedicated system Desktop system
Videoconferencing allows two or more locations All the required Add-ons to personal
components are packaged computers such as
to interact using two-way video and audio into a single console, webcams and microphones
including a remote
transmissions simultaneously. controlled video camera
Advantages Disadvantages
Allows communication between different countries, no need to Lack of eye contact may affect the conversation
travel so saves time and money
Visual information can be communicates as part if the Connection can often fail
Speeds up the decision making process Some people may get camera shy
Synchronisation of countries in different time zones…read more

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Computer-Aided Design
Advantages of CAD in Advantages of CAD in virtual Advantages of CAD when
creative design stage modelling and testing stage using rapid prototyping
Designs can be quickly edited and The ability to represent an accurate 3D RPT machines can produce solid
modified with client feedback model in a virtual world models from a 3D models in a
variety of materials
3D model can be generated Reduces development time and costs Complex and intricate models can
be produced without the need for
setting up a complicated machine.
Computer modelling can be used to 3D models can be used alongside Models can be made within a few
test components on screen and prototype models but can be easily hours
create photorealistic images for changed
CAM software uses the geometric A function called bi-directional Ease of manufacture
data from the CAD programme to parametric association aids modification
generate instructions to drive by causing a slight change to a feature
automatic tools to also adjust other features if needed.
Reduce the need for large and Can be used to determine if parts will fit Shortens design and development
intensive labour drawing offices together within the required tolerance time
CAD data can be transferred Relatively inexpensive to create Enhances design quality
electronically simulations
CAD system can store drawings in They are repeatable Reduces development costs
folders…read more

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EPOS ­ electronic point of sale
When an EPOS is passed over a barcode reader or a scanner, the barcode is read by a laser
beam. The laser scans the barcode and reflects back onto a photoelectric cell. The bars are
detected because they reflect less light than the background on which they are printed.
Advantages of EPOS (provides manufacturers with) Data matrices (2D barcodes
A full account of the financial transactions of the companies products can be read and decoded buy
machines. They contain more
Data that can be input onto spreadsheets information because they are
not only the width of the lines
Ability to monitor all product lines and allow the company to react but also the height of them.
quickly to demand
Accurate information for identifying consumer buying trends when
making marketing decisions
A full and responsive stock control system
Ensures sufficient stock is available to meet customer needs without
over-stocking…read more

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