Design and Market Influences [Chapter 5 AQA Book]

Notes made from the AQA AS/A2 Product Design Textbook on Topic 5 [not including work of past and present designers - those on separate flash cards]


Roles in the design process

Client: individual, group identifty a need / niche that new product = solve

  • Often entrepreneurs trying to make money - launch product themselves / persuade others [fund]
  • Client could commission designer or group to commercialise their product

Designer: individual, group develop client's product.

  • Designer + client develop brief and specification. Large-scale - marketing dept. involved so that user 'wants' and 'needs' are actually met.
  • Large corps. = 'product managers' - monitor progress of product's development and work between design and marketing depts. to ensure product = consumer needs met

Inventor: individual, group produce ideas for new / improved product

  • Communicated in visual format [sketches, models, prototypes]
  • Commercial world: inventor's idea taken up by [product] designers = develop to make it sell
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Roles in the design process

Designer-Maker: individual design product + make it [whole process]

  • i.e. craft workers [potters, jewellers, carpenters, costume makers].
  • Small-scale production

Makers: manufacture product.

  • Client / entrepreneur may own manufacturer [maker] company, or might be independent...
  • Independent company commissioned to make client / entrepreneurs product
  • Global manufacturing: email / intranet / internet = made across the globe. Lower costs, raw materials, manufactring might make product = economically design and manufacture

GLOBAL MANUFACTURING: modern-day industrial practice - designing in one part of the world + manufacturing in another [materials / labour costs = cheaper].

User: individual / group who use product

  • Big corps - conduct 'market research' to identify market research [in sector most likely to use product]
  • Researcher and designer may then work with user group
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Marketing Function - Relationships

Past: user though of after product made [maybe with SOME retrospective adjustments - to convince more people to use them]

Today: designer looks at user needs at EARLIEST opportunity - economic sense, as more likely to BUY it if it is USEFUL to their NEEDS

Manufacturers: few sell DIRECTLY to public. Often - distributors who sell to retail outlets. But, manufacturer MUST understand user and build good relationship, even if they don't sell to them...

  • product must meed user's needs
  • aspiration of consumer met
  • budget of consumer met
  • agressive advertising of product - make sure it sells [people see its comparative advantage]

Designers concerned with same issues [above] as manufacturer - ever MORE 'user focused'. Learning about user, their desires and involving them in development process - product can please and sell well.

MARKET RESEARCH: vital in building understanding of user needs and aspirations for designers and manufacturers

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Marketing Function: Consumer Profiles

Organisations: make a 'user profile' -IMPORTANT TO DESIGN PROCESS

Representative of people in their target market - determine needs and aspirations of client

Understanding of people's lifestyle and buying habits

This changes appearance and quality of product

Also - how to advertise product? Price, colour, slogan, POS, graphics, packaging 

Lifestyle - matched through product, packaging and POS [point-of-sale]

( What does the 'customer' want?

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Marketing Function: Marketing Mix

Marketing Mix: to make design brief and spec - decide what will affect design and success of final product. Factors known as marketing mix...

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Marketing Function: Marketing Mix (Product)

Product: success - MUST attract buyers. Consumer's choose  to buy or not because of:

  • Function: what does it do? Interesting features?
  • Performance: how well does it do what its designed to do?
  • Ease of use: how easy to use? Easy to set up? Instructions needed?
  • Reliability: how long will it last? Likely to fail?
  • Aesthetics: what does it look like? Appealing to look at? Fit required image / style of user?
  • Compatability: Product work with other products already owned e.g. DVD player with TV set
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Marketing Function: Marketing Mix (Price)

Price: one of a designers main constraints

Compromise between making a product as cheaply as possible and providing the user with value for money

Too High: not enough people will buy it

Too Low: people might not buy it because they think it is too cheap to be worthwhile owning

Designer won't really work with price, but it WILL affect what they do / don't put in the product

Place: product must reach consumer on time

Made efficiently, packed and distributed on time. Specialist industrial designers focus on 'JIT' and  flexible or dedicated manufacturing systems.

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Marketing Function: Marketing Mix (Promotion)

Promotion: must be successfully promoted to the public.

  • Design of packaging
  • Promotional materials
  • EPOS and POS

Small companies: designers might also be included in packaging as well as product design

Process: How easily can the consumer purchase the product? Easier to purchase, faster it can diffuse into the market = more sales

(  Internet shopping: makes promotion and purchase easier...

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Marketing Function: Marketing Mix (Physical Ev)

Physical Evidence: if you buy it, then you physically have it. But for 'bolt-on' or additional services, there may not be clear evidence that you have it - i.e. apps - so designer = symbol to show client they have bought it.


Properties: aesthetics + environmental impac

  • Aesthetics: we buy with our eyes [often just as important as its features]
  • looks good
  • texture good
  • colours good
  • Environment: becoming ever more important
  • white goods [refrigerators, etc] are now energy rated, and consumers may look at the ratings
  • Environmental concerns grow - increasingly important that they are enery efficient
  • Lots of products based on manufacturer claims i.e. 'organic' 'recyclable' 'non-toxic' 'eco-safe'
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Marketing Function: Marketing Mix

Pleasure: if it gives people pleasure, has 'added value'

Does everything it is supposed to + pleasre = successful product

i.e. Apple iPhone - epitome of functional yet pleasurable product


People: if product is to sell wel - people selling it need to be good at selling it!

i.e. need to understand product + its benefits. Influence people to buy it + good after sale service


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Design Methods - How designing starts

How designing starts: commerical + economic reasons drive most inventions

BUT: most inventions by individual inventors, because of:

  • dissatisfaction with product or situation [constructive discontent]
  • want to make money
  • want to do something to help others
  • interested in technological or scientific progress

[Topics expanded upon in further flash-cards]


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Design Methods - Constructive Discontent

Existing design unsatisfactory

Creative inventors = solution that is better

Dyson - dissatsfied with conventional wheelbarrow [hard to manouvre / dig into ground]

  • 1974 - 'Ballbarrow' = turns more easily / ball instead of wheel / absorbs shock over rough surface

  James Dyson's 'Ballbarrow' (1974)

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Design Methods - To make money

How to keep users buying more

Gillette: (1895) 'edge of the razor that is important in shaving'

  • disposable razor - obsolete - people keep on buying it = CONSTANT DEMAND
  • Gillette + Nickerson: handle, holder and disposable blade
  • 'Safety Razor' = 1903, safer than 'cut-throat' razor
  • Second year: sales boomed [90,000 razors and 12.5 million blades sold]
  • Gillette: currently one of the largest grooming and razor manufacturers globally [£billion dollar sales each year]

  Gillette Razor [modern]

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Design Methods - To help others

AIDS / HIV - Trevor Bayliss watching TV in 1991 - realised poor people in South Africa couldn't spread message about safe sex as couldn't afford batteries for radio.

'Freeplay' Radio: 14 minutes radio for 30 second wind up

  • lots of development and funds
  • research and fundraising
  • 'Freeplay radio' created
  • Initially disabled people made them [as disabled found it hard to get work elsewhere]
  • Now made in China - but still given out free to those in need by Freeplay Foundation
  • Lots of types, some with solar cells too

(  Trevor Bayliss' 'Freeplay' Radio (1991)

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Design Methods - Exploration of science and tech

LASER: [Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation] invented by Townes + Shadlow

  • After WW2 - Townes and Shadlow in Bell Labs, USA
  • Experimenting with modified radar techniques + microwaves to study molecular structures
  • Infrared and optical light - created world's first 'laser'
  • Didn't think it would be useful, only in science, but was patented in 1960
  • Now, used in eye surgery, CD / DVD players, scanners, construction sites [measure distance]


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Design Activity Within Organisations

Design innovation often takes place within organisations

  • have the money
  • resources
  • facilities [i.e. rapid prototyping / CAD and CAM
  • patents / money for patents

Companies NEED to make large improvements to existing products, or create new ones if they want to stay competitive. Reasons for product change could be...

  • business strategy of company [i.e. Apple - innovative / creative]
  • deficiencies in current designs or product / or methods of making it 
    • i.e. hand laying of fibre glass sheets or resin transfer moulding [RTM]
  • advancements in materials / technology [technology push]
    • Technology Push: new products made and old ones made obsolete by advancements in tech, i.e. smaller, more powerful micro-processors / PCBs which have aided in the development of smaller, faster computers with better performance [i.e. Macbook Air]
  • government legislation [i.e. Kyoto Protocol / Car Emissions Tax - reduce enviro-impact]
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Design Process - Identification of Problem

Need or problem is identified or the 'situation' / 'design problem'

Who identifies the problem:

  • Designers identify problem themselves
  • Client identifies problem themselves
  • Marketing deptartments identify problem [in big corporations]

Whoever finds problem - designer attempts to find a solution


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Design Process - The Brief

Document: what is to be designed

  • Details of functional requirements, aesthetics, materias, safety and quality considerations
  • Guides designers / helps to formulate a performance and marketing specification
  • Client - often identifies need, so creates brief
    • i.e. person who wants a custom-made kitchen, phone, house, car
    • could be the entrepreneur who identified the niche
    • Designer must work closely with client in any case
  • Client - often likely to be the user [i.e. custom car] or simply someone who buys it. So market research is crucial in understanding what the 'customer base' or 'user' wants
  • Design team split into groups to follow aspects of brief, as unlikely to have all skills i.e. some look at design, ergonomics, software, materials... may also use external consultants
  • CAR: split into mechanical and software engineering, textiles, etc.
    • Car designers would work with production engineers to plan manufacture [according to brief] but specialist industrial designers used to make machines which make the cars 


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Design Process - The Specification

Document: expands upon the brief, setting out very detailed design constraints

  • materials used / product is made from
  • specific functional details i.e. what must it do, cost, limitations, references to legal and quality standards

Referred to during designing and when evaluation - does it meet original identified need?

Refer to Pugh's Model - guides specification ['Total Design' model - all possible factors included]

Analogy: designer like plate spinner - some parts of plate require more focus at different times

Total Design: Prevents factors i.e. cost, ergonomics, environment from dominating process

(  Total Design Approach: Pugh Plate with Design Core at the centre

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Design Process - Analysis + Research

Analysis: recieve design problem and brief. Carry out research into unfamiliar materials, processes, etc, that might be used. Is it suitable? How can it be used?

Research plans drawn up in detail during analysis

Research: two types

  • Market research
    • Surveys
      • Personal
      • Structured
      • Semi-Structured
      • Non-directive
  • User Research
    • Observation: people in own environment
    • Observation: people in useability laboratory
    • Bodystorming
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Design Process - Market Research

Surveys: often quantitative  / different levels of contact [personal, group, phone, internet, post]


  • spending trends + buying habits
  • existing products purchased
  • stored on computer good for identifying target market / spec
  • not good for identifying need for new product
  • Personal Interviews: 
    • Structured: list of questions / possible closed answers / interviewer ticks off
  • Semi-structured: prompts for interviewer [topics]. More freedom / unexpected answers which could be useful for design process
  • Non-Directive: interviewee can talk about chosen topic freely. Interviewer notes / tapes it and keeps discussion going. Good for product handling / testing sessions - identifies scope for improvement / flows
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Design Process - User Research

User Research: good for identifying need for new product / interaction with product

Observation: own environment

  • how they use products [difficulties, workaround - used differently than designer intended]
  • adaptations: tie string to things / balance phone on shoulder / steps to reach things
  • Ethnographic research + video-ethnography [if videoed]

Observation: useability laboratory

  • group representing cross-section of society
  • controlled environment to test and use products
  • comments videoed or recorded / analysed in detail later
  • range of products + worksheet to prompt testing - good for indentifying weaknesses in design
  • good parts and bad parts of design / tested against rival products too


  • role-play = designers act out process of using product / using full sized mock-ups maybe
  • observe real-life experience [wheelchair / restrictive body suit for disabled 'experience']
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Design Process - Other Research + Idea Generation

Analysing similar designs: useful materials, components, features, general inspo - disassembly?

Database searches: materials, cost, properties, etc [preliminary]

Testing materials / components: circuits, strength, outside environment susceptability

Field testing: compared against existing products. Strengths, weaknesses - stay competitive

All carried out by designer themselves or by specialists

Generation of ideas: actual designing stage... 

Sketches / models / CAD / rendered for clients / chosen design developed further

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Design Process - How are ideas formed

  • Chance: working on one thing - discover another. Cats Eye and Velcro created by 'chance'. Percy Spencer and the melting chocolate bar - standing in front of radar magnetron - created the 'microwave'
  • Act of insight: Archimedes and gold vs silver crown. Using displacement to determine volume and density. Also - Barnes Wallis skimming pebbles = bomb skimming water to hit target
  • Associative thinking: bringing two apparently unrelated ideas to create one. i.e. archimedes. 
  • Adaptation: adapting a solution for another problem to suit a new one i.e. Dyson took inspiration from industrial fume extractors for bagless cyclone technology
  • Transfer: technology moved from one purpose to another to provide a design solution. i.e. laser from science to CD players
  • Analogy: using a similar situation - human or man-made world - to inspire. i.e. Wright Brothers and flight = birds were inspiration. Bell: human ear for telephone reciever
  • Combination: two or more products combined into one i.e. drill with light, saw with interchangeable handles, etc.
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Design Process - Development + Manufacture

Development: chosen design improved

  • different way of manufacture
  • components altered i.e. switches, buttons, screens [i.e. Gorilla glass, Apple iPhone]
  • refined - styling and function
  • scale models used / mock up
    • Scale Model: used to test designs without expense of full prototype. Test ergonomics, construction methods, colour schemes, etc
  • prototypes used to take measurements for moulds, etc
  • final working drawings - materials, colour, finish, dimensions
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Design Process - Manufacture

Manufacture: how constructed

  • constant communication with designer - have the designed it to be made properly? Can it actually be made?
  • with specification, make the design     (

Manufacturer might make it themeslves [artisan, jeweller, etc]

  • product made all over globe [global manufacturing] i.e. chemical made here, bottle there
  • specialists make different parts [i.e. drugs by scientists / packaging by plastic specialists]
  • video-conferencing, EDI, internet make design process and manufacture faster / easier

Before large-scale manufacture - small scale manufacture:

  • won't waste money - iron out weaknesses in process
  • speed up the process
  • test quality assurance measures [of machines + workers]
  • carry out product testing and analysis - is it high quality? or will it break?
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Design Process - Testing and Evaluation

Prototypes tested: before full scale manufacture / aim for 'zero-defect' manufacture

Specification: product compared to original specification to ensure it meets requirements / solves problem


  • NOT linear
  • designing, testing and research all at the same time
  • evaluation all the way throughout
  • development of final design all the way through


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Patent: state granted exclusive rights to a product or parts of a design. Gives owner intellectual property rights.

Owner can make, sell, use, give to others to make for a given period when granted. The fee is based upon how long you want the patent for.

Why use a patent?

  • legal action can be taken against copy-cats with patent
  • rights to your design
  • exlusivity to market?
  • time to establish a brand name before others copy you
  • fund and inspire new development and technological advancements [design is made public with patent, and is detailed enough to be made by a third party]
    • some designers wait until they have made their product and began sales before patenting, as if designs released, competitors could make rival products before theirs even comes to market...
  • used by manufacturer as so detailed - no need for further drawings?
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Patents: What isn't eligible?

Not eligible:

  • discoveries
  • mathematical methods
  • scientific theories
  • art [Brand names and logos protect under 'trade marks' and sketch of idea = 'design right']
  • computer programmes
  • literary and dramatic work [under 'copyright' act]
  • other areas with no physical product
  • has to be inventive - not just anyone could think of and already solved
  • must be new - not publically shared before
  • capable of being industrially made [i.e. physical form / substance]

James Dyson: 2000 took Hoover to court over 'bagless' technology. Won, but cost lots of money - Hoover infringed his 1980 cyclone patent in their 'Triple Vortex' bagless. Used funds to set up own factory to produce the DC01

Ron Hickman: invented 'Workmate' [sold by Black and Decker]. Spent over £1 million on rivals

Apple: patented the 'bevel' of their design against Samsung. 

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Communication and Representation of Design Ideas

Mood Boards: collection of images and photos similar to those being designed. Colour swatches, fabric, material samples, finishes, etc. Used by designer as style reference, or with client to decide on a particular style

2D + 3D Sketching: 'thumbnail sketches'. Quick, rough sketches to explore concept ideas. Add evaluative comments, notes, thoughts around them

Rendering: line, tone, colour to make 2D or 3D drawings look realistic. Hand, pencil, marker, or 3D CAD systems [ProDesktop, SketchUp, AutoDesk], Textures and colour to represent alternative materials and surface finishes. 

Orthographic projection: technical line drawings to show front, plan and end product view. 

  • details necessary for manufacture
  • may be to scale - i.e. 1:10
  • have dimensions
  • details of materials / finishes
  • called sometimes 'working drawings'
  • include a tolerance e.g. + or - 0.01mm [acceptable to be above or below by this amount]
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Communication and Representation of Design Ideas

Modelling: 3D photo-realistic CAD model used to select and develop ideas, or physical models made from resistant or compliant materials. Used before final manufacture to check measurements. Architects often make scale model of building to check proportions, aesthetic, etc. Use them to communicate with public also.

Mock-ups: rough prototype, possibly low-cost materials [card, MDF, plywood, etc]. In Eurofighter jet, made full scale plywood mock-up so test ergonomics, etc for pilots. Smaller scale, use clay etc for handles [ergonomic testing]

Prototype: high quality model or functioning product that is produced to realised design solution. Tested and evaluated before considering production.

Presentation boards: high-quality renderings / technical line drawings. Details of design. Presenting ideas to clients, colleauge or public. i.e. architects - artist's impression, elevation drawings at exhibitions [public consultation] or to local planning offices.

( Mood Board / Presentation Board

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Sustainability and Environmental Design

We have become more environmentally friendly/aware: governmental legislation + greener brands

Ecolabel: EU Ecolabel, voluntary scheme (1993). Encouraged to label products with reduced environmental impact over their lifecycle. Identified by flower symbol

Packaging Directive: EU directive, 1994, amended in 2004. Reduce packaging from intial design, recycling and re-use. Sets limits for toxic metals used in packaging. Targets:

  • 2008: 60% packaging waste to be recovered
  • 2008: minimum 55% recycled

Energy Labelling Directive: 1996, EU. All electric appliances [i.e. white goods] have to be labelled with a rating from A to G regarding their energy use. Aims to phase out inefficient appliances...

End-of-life-vehicle-directive: 2003 to encourage reuse and recycling of vehicle waste at life end. Toxic metals are restricted, plastic parts have to be labelled for recycling. Manufacturers must public info about vehicle dismantling too

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Sustainability and Environmental Design

Waste Eletrical and Electronic Equipment Directive: EU 'WEEE' directive, 2006. Encourages manufacturers to provide products that can be dismantled and the parts reused or recycled. Also have to provide instructions telling consumers NOT to disregard old product but take them to WEEE collection points. Manufacturers also have to arrange for WEEE collection.

Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive [RoHS]: 2006, EU. Bans use of some hazardous chemicals like lead, mercury and cadmium in electronic and electrical equipment. Safeguard human health when disposed and recycled.

( 'RoHS Compliant' Logo

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Green Design, Eco-Design, Sustainable Design

Green Design: reduces impact on the environment

  • Conserving materials: using recycled goods in manufacture
  • Conserving energy use in product use: i.e. Dyson contra-rotating wasing machine. Water jets reduce water and alternate rotating tubs reduces washing time - saves energy

Eco-Design: more than green design - whole process from raw materials to end of life

  • low impact materials
  • reduction of material usage in product and packaging i.e. Coca Cola's new, squarer botle [66% smaller when crumpled]
  • reduction of energy / impact during use and optimisation of lifespan
  • optimisation of end of life systems (recycling, recovery of materials and components)
  • Also called Life Cycle Design [LCD] - tacking material consumption, fossil fuel consuption and pollution / toxic waste
  • LCA - LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: used to assess product's impact on the environment at the end of life

Sustainable Design: Sustainable design is the philosophy of designing physical objects, the built environment, and services to comply with the principles of social, economic, and ecological sustainability. 

  • product function analysed - could function be performed in another way
  • i.e. tumble dryer replaced by solar heated drying cabinet / immersion heater = solar heater
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Sustainable Innovation, Green Design + Packaging

Sustainable Innovation: radical innovation - all aspects of life interlinked and using the most efficient and alternative products / energies

  • washing sent off with recycling collection [biodiesel car]
  • wind, solar, micro CHP plants run washing machines (efficient)
  • clothes returned with grocery shop

Green Design Products: 

  • organically grown clothes, natural dyes [no pesticides or chemicals required]
  • sandals made from recycled denim / rubber [i.e. SoleRebels]
  • folding bikes [save fuel, encourage biking]
  • condensing gas heater boilers [90% efficiency]
  • reusable plastic filters in coffee machines, not paper
  • biodegradable carrier bags / pencisl made from PS cups
  • PACKAGING: Packaging Directive, 1994 - Duracell card packing [no blister pack] and Motorola with moulded inner cardboard layer, not PS.
  • Inflatable LDPE 'pillows' to reduce use of polymer used. Can be deflated and returned to manufacturer for reuse
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Life Cycle Assessment: Tumble Dryer

  • UK wastes on average £120 million pounds a year using tumble dryers in the Winter [Telegraph]
  • Three-quarters of energy used during washing and drying comes from the tumble dryer - used twice every week produces over 440 kg of CO2 each year.
  • Tumble dryers often use electricity to generate heat - lots of this energy is lost during production up cooling towers, and is twice as wasteful as getting energy from gas.
  • Moreover, we tend to run them for far longer than necessary!

ECO-FRIENDLY TUMBLE DRYER: LG have created an A++ tumble dryer, which senses the level of moisture in the clothes. It also rotates from side to side to reduce drying time and tangling. A heat pump enables low temperatures to be used, as more air is produced so less likely to become saturated...

($prod_lrg$)LG's Eco-Friendly A++ 'RC9055AP2Z'

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Eco-Lights: CFLs and LEDs


  • heated electrode which emits electrodes into a tube of mercury vapour
  • vapour emits UV light - inner phosphor coating reacts to UV to create a visible white light.
  • 1980s invetion: 10 x longer than traditional incandescent bulb and use only 20% electricity. 
  • 'Use' face is relatively low impact - but use toxic chemicals in construction i.e. Mercury



  • light created when electrons pass between two pieces of semi-conducting material
  • LEDs used frequently - digital displays, car lights.
  • Robust and energy efficient - 90% energy is turned into light.
  • White LED: inner coating of phosporescent material / or by mixing primary colour bulb light
  • 100,000 hour lifespan [approx.], declinging production costs, increased technical development
  • White LEDs could replace CFLs, halogen and incandescent bulbs in domestic situations
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Eco-Lights: Electrodeless Induction Lamps

1990s - ITC California

  • Magnetic Coil generate radio waves - excite gases in lamp
  • inner phosphorescent material glows
  • 20,000 lifespan estimates [incandescent = 700 hours]
  • No filament or electrode to wear down, but gases will need replacing - glass cover can be replaced, therefore, but electric base can be retained

(  'Electrodeless lamp'

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Cars: Environmental Impact

Extraction: aluminium, mild steel, copper, glass, polymers - large amount of energy used to extracting these! + water, emissions to atmosphere, environmental damage and solid waste...

Manufacturing: construction and painting also produces emissions / chemicals

USE: highest impact - CO2 production, CO, Sulphur Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide - toxic, particulates too - all harmful to human and environmental health

Cars - 30% UK CO2 emissions - 80% of a cars impact occurs during the 'use' stage

Consumable parts of the car regularly replaced [i.e. tyres, exhaust, windows] and valuable parts recycled at the end [using more energy] but lots just dumped (i.e. fabric, textiles, etc)


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Green Cars

1990s: catalytic converters introduced by the EU to reduce car emission impacts

Now: focus on fuel economy too - have to show emissions [per km] + fuel efficiency ratings

Eco-friendly modifications most common in cars now:

  • polymers used to reduce weight
  • thin section mild steel or aluminium bodies and sub assemblies to reduce weight
  • electronic engine management systems to optimise burning of fuel
  • stop/start systems - turn off engine when driver stops car - re-engages engine when clutch pressed. Reduces CO2 emissions by 8% roughly [Bosch - BMW]
  • asbestos free breaks / clutches
  • % weight of recycled textiles and upholstery fillings / soundproofing
  • natural fibres and textiles used in dyes in upholstery
  • water based paint finishes
  • internationally coded plastic for recycling i.e. PS '6' and HIPS '8'
  • digital recycling manuals to aid in deconstruction and recycling of car parts
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Hybrid Cars

Toyota + Honda: hybrids with petro and electric motor

  • Slow speeds - runs electric = no emissions
  • High speeds - petrol takes over and charges batteries at the same time which run motor
  • No need for plugging in and charging
  • Petrol = allows A/C, radios and phone charging, etc. that might not work in purely electric


  • only really work at low speeds
  • once they reach high speeds - weight of motor and batteries reduces cars efficiency!

(  Toyota Yaris - Electric

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Hydrogen Fuel Cell + Cars

Some limited production runs of road worthy / hydrogen cell car [Daimler-Chrysler F-Cell Car]

Hydrogen Fuel Cells: electrochemical energy conversion devices converting hydrogen and oxygen into water. During this = produces electricity

Used In Cars: Polymer Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell [PEMFC]

  • high power output
  • relatively low operating temperatures [60-80°C]
  • only emission is water vapour
  • VERY expensive components [some catalysts made from platinum]
  • hydrogen is dangerous and hard to store [explosive]

Research looking into reducing the size and cost of these fuel cells, finding safe ways to store hydrogen and new, cheaper catalyst materials


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Polymer Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell [PEMFC]


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Electric Cars

  • G-Wiz - Reva Electric Car Company [India and US merger]
  • 45 mph and 48 miles on one charge - efficient a.c. drive motor, lithium-ion batteries and lightweight alloys and composites have all made it possible.
  • Regenerative breaking also makes it more environmentally friendly - charge battery = + distance
  • have to be charged and at a suitable location [users home]
  • infrastructure not designed for electric cars yet
  • also huge increase in electricity production and therefore emissions if we changed to electric [but we could change our electricity production? Nuclear, wind, solar, HEP could power grid - so carbon neutral? or Zero-emissions]

(  'G-Wiz' - Reva Electric Car Company

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Eco-Car: Bio-Diesel


  • Vegetable oil from crops like **** seed and palm
  • 'carbon neutral' and produces roughly the same mileage as standard diesel
  • individuals make their own with cooking oil - normally goes to landfill
  • loss of habitat due to crops grown for diesel
  • starvation and hunger as land used for crops rather than subsistence farming


  • grain crops like ethanol with diesel - reduces need for fossil fuel diesel
  • lower CO2 emissions
  • Dual fuel cars being made - good as will be long time before used in fuel stations
  • Bio-power - fewer miles to gallon than standard diesel :(
  • scientists trying to improve it AND use the whole plant, not just the grain
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Rebound Effect: Cars and Consumer Goods


Development has made cars faster, able to travel longer distances and more efficient = GREATBut: we are now upgrading to bigger cars and travelling longer distances because it is easier and now the norm... This eradicates ANY of the environmental gain the more efficient cars could have brought = BAD

Consumer Goods:

They are now cheaper and more accessible for the individual. Maybe more sustainable socially and economically, but we are buying more because we can. We also recieve the savings made through cheaper manufacture - so we buy even more. 

So - we are getting greener but our reaction is 'rebounding' and undermining any eco-benefit...

(  We have become maybe a little too greedy...

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Plastics: Car

Car: lots of polymers used in car manufacture. 

  • car bumper / grill / doors / wheel trims / wheel covers
  • wing mirrors / light surrounds and covers
  • door handles / dashboard fascias [dashboards - ABS: scratch resistant, durable to cleaning, wear, etc]
  • steering wheels / door trims / number plates / upholstery materials

Why use plastics in cars?

  • light weight and mouldable [injection moulding - all recesses and vents made in one go]
  • self-finishing + colour applied during the process [suit customer tastes i.e. leather effect dash]
  • traditionally made from pressed metals [steel] + sprayed / painted. Time consuming and expensive as more machines required + labour
  • Large volumes of components can be produced at any one time + streamlined
  • Final assembly much faster - 'self tapping screws' or 'click fastenings' can be used
  • Better properties i.e. Polycarbonate for headlamps more resilient than easy-to-shatter glass
  • smaller plastic components reduced overall weight of car - more efficient as saves fuel
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Safety - Risk Assessments

Risk Assessment: document assessing the

  • type of hazard, the level of risk
  • who might be affected
  • description of the control measures taken to minimise the risk associated with using specific materials and manufacturing processes

Outcome of risk assessment can determine aesthetics, materials, components and finishes used

( Risk Assessment Wheel

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Safety Legislation + Manufacturing

Health and Safety Work Act 1974 and COSHH (2002): to protect workers and employees

Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations [COSHH]: regulations dealing with the safe handling, use and storage of hazardous materials. Employers obliged to do the following:

  • make workplace safe and free from risks to health
  • machinery has to be asafe / safe practice MUST be followed
  • dangerous items must be stored safely and / or removed
  • sufficient welfare facilities must be provided
  • information, training and supervision for health reasons must be provided if necessary


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Employers + Safety


  • Employees trained - safe operation of equipment.
  • Health and Safety courses needed / tested against HSE standards = competence
    • Health and Safety Executive [HSE]: gov advisory service, helps companies to meet H+S regulations und H+S At Work Act. HSE publish posters [often legal requirement] and local HSE officers visit to ensure competence and compliance + to investigate accidents

Guarding of machines:

  • HSE states - most machines guarded i.e. saw blades / band saw / circular saws 
  • press-formers and CNC punches - infra-red light systems to shut down systems [high-tech]

Personal Protection Equipment [PPE]:

  • Protective clothing [boots, hats, fluro-jackets, gloves, goggles, dusk mask] i.e. building site


  • dust / fumes = extractor. Esp.  when composites machined i.e. MDF / GRP = hazardous
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Employers + Safety


  • HSE regulations / guidance for storage of hazardous substances / handling
  • how labelled, safely used and stored i.e. COSHH Cabinets

( 'COSHH' Cupboards

Risk Assessments:

  • calculation of hazards associated with manufacturing processes / job
  • whether it should be continued or not [high, medium or low rank]
  • how can it be controlled
  • Employers legally obliged to carry out risk assessment!
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Safety Legislation + the user

Consumer protection laws: to protect users from unsafe products

Department of Trade and Industry [DTI] and European Union [EU] enforces them...

Trading Standards Agency [TSA]: can remove unsafe products from market + prosecute offenders upto £5000 or imprisonment for upto 6 months

Electrical Equipment [Safety] Regulations Act (1994): mains voltage items - well insulated and prevents users from shock or fire. If used with 240V, electrical plugs must be fitted

Plugs and Sockets [Safety] Regulation (1994): plugs and sockets, etc, must comply

EU has input lots of product safety derivatives over many areas:

  • General product safety
  • toy safety [CE and Lion mark]
  • machines
  • noise emissions from domestic products
  • low voltage electrical equipment
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Safety Legislation + the user [BSI Kite and CE]

BSI: kite mark can be displayed when product is tested by BSI. Have to pay for test...


CE (Conformité Européenne): if it meets regulation applicable to it, it can have it displayed on it and can be sold in the EU.


If both symbols are displayed, then it is seen as a 'safe' product to be sold / customer reassurance

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Safety Assessment: Analysis of Portable Fan Heater

  • Safety button under base: if not against a flat surface, switches off to prevent burning / overheating
  • Plastic shell: insulation to prevent burning from heating filament
  • Mesh / guard: to prevent touching the filaments, but also to prevent touching fan
  • Thermostat: to prevent overheating and damage to internals
  • Coated cable + 3-Pin Plug: to prevent electrocution but also safe wiring / voltage insulation

( Dials also allow user control [hot+ cold]

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Human Needs + Human Factors

Ergonomics: the stuy of the interaction beteen the human body, products and the environment. It can include:

  • Colour: switches, warning lights, function keys on phones - reaction depends on colour
  • Lighting: good or bad lighting. Visual displays light enough to see, but not to strain. Important in offices and workstations for effective working / comfort / minimise computer reflection
  • Sound: audible warnings or instructions [i.e. self-service tills, engine noise] Too low - hard to interact, but too high - safety hazard [i.e. from machines]
  • Comfort: shape, grip / covering [i.e. rubberised handle / prevents metal allergy], layout [i.e. good or bad kitchen design - the golden 'triangle']. Temperature also affects comfort, noise level and vibration.

Anthropometrics: body / human measurements to improve product's ergonomics, systems, environments, etc. Recorded as percentiles [i.e. 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles].

( Golden Kitchen Triangle - Is the space comfortable to work in?

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Human Needs + Human Factors - Product Analysis

Stabilo 'Easy' Ergonomic Pen:


  • Designed for Left and Right handed in dividuals - promote proper writing position
  • Curved body to 'embrace' hand / promote good position [traditional pens lie flat against them]
  • Rubberised body for soft grip + non-slip [often ball-point / ink pens have a hard shell /slip]
  • Shaped body for fingers - promote comfortable grip [often pens = hurt edge of finger/lump]
  • Colours = wide range of tastes + interchangeable ink barrels / colours [not just plain]
  • Recess under back [black] end for name to go [won't lose the pen like usual...]
  • Roller-ball ink refill - even ink flow so won't smudge or scratch [good for lots of use]
  • Roller-ball works at almost any angle for any style of writing [some pens at angle - don't work]
  • Front cap fits on end to prevent it from getting lost - 'part' of design [commonly misplaced]
  • Plastic body - warm to touch and light weight for easy writing [metal pen - cold + heavy?]
  • Available in adult + kids suit any hand type [not too expensive either for all this - £4.99 - although more than the average pen / pencil...]
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Human Needs + Human Factors - Disabled Design

Disabled Individuals: a variety of different needs which must be met in our inclusive society...

Adapted Products: suited to our ageing population / demand will grow

  • Kettle: tipping devices for one handed operation [amputee / stroke victim]
  • Taps: lever attachment / open and close = easier [arthritis / stroke victim with limited grip]
  • Hand controlled cars: instead of using foot pedals, using hands for acceleration + braking
  • Stair + bath lifts: for those with mobility issues
  • Lightweight wheelchairs: for disabled sports people and disabled individuals
  • Velcro fastenings: faster / easier than buttons / zips - don't require two hands [arthritis = good]

Public Building / Service [i.e. trains] Adaptation: planning ensures disabled design is obligatory

  • clearly marked disabled parking / near entrance / exit / wide enough for wheel chairs, etc
  • same level entrances / ramps / shallow / handrail for steps / automatic doors / easy door
  • threshhold low / non-existent
  • wide enough corridors for wheelchairs / easy internal doors / automatic / held by by catches
  • wheelchair refuge point in case of fire?
  • Disabled toilets / high toilet / help-alarm / lever-tap / easy door / wide  / easy flush / grab rails
  • Lifts / wide / call button height / low [no] threshhold / illuminated + braille buttons / handrails
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Major Developments in Technology - Radio

  • 1930:
    • Commerically available: focus on hand crafting [radio casing]
    • Mains 240V + thermionic valve [emitted electrons when valves were heated]
    • Internal grid: controlled electrons [current] and therefore amplified incoming sound signa;
    • Lots of amplification stages + oscillator, aerial and a big loudspeaker [200+ mm]
    • Lots of resistors + capacitors + copper wire
    • Large space around components: heat dissipation
    • VERY heavy + large: case + metal base + transformer for turning down 240V to 6.5V
    • Expensive - despite poor reception and quality in today's world!
  • 1940 + 1950:
    • Made from newly developed polymers i.e. Bakelite
    • handles and control knobs made from it

( ( ( ( ( (                 In:  1930           1940               1950            1960           1970            1980            1990                2000        2010     Today [iPhone]

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major Developments in Technology - Radio

  • 1950: Transistor
    • Two kinds of semi-conducting material [only conduct current if certain volatage reached]
    • 'n-type' and 'p-type' materials: how they are arranged in either silicon or germanium
      • N-Type: semi-conductor doped with more negative material - energy flows same direction as current in the wire 
      • P-Type: semi-conductor doped with more positive material - energy flows opposite direction to current in the wire
    • Work as a switch, turning on current at p-n-p junction when it is above a minimum value
    • Control flow of electrons - useful in radio amplification
    • Require less energy than transistor valve - so circuit requires less power and smaller components
    • Now - radios could be run on a 9V battery - PORTABLE
    • Miniaturisation of components - new circuit construction of conductors attached to substrate - like PCBs.

(  Transistor: used to increase current [amplify] or switch

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major Developments in Technology - Radio

  • 1960:
    • Still made from wood and bent veneers, but often covered in a plastic 'leatherette'
    • Better sound quality - good for music
  • 1970:
    • More thermoplastics used - i.e. ABS + injection moulding could create complex shapes
    • Mouldable styling and ergonomic features too
    • Smaller in size
    • Mountings for circuit boards and all in one fixtures + self coloured / textures
    • Thousands of transistors can be placed onto integrated circuits [IC] now [miniaturisation]
      • IC: 'chip', small electronic device made out of a piece of semi-conducting material. Contain electronic circuits which could also contains thousands of transistors.
    • Low energy requirements and no need for large battery / space to dissipate heat
    • Pocket sized now i.e. Walkman

  Regency TR-1 World's First Transistor Radio (circa. 1954+)

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Major Developments in Technology - Radio


  • Microchip revolutionised design
  • Headphones made into aerial - no need for carbon rod [1960s]
  • Graphical User Interface [GUI] or LED or LCD screens now
  • Change sound through 'graphical equaliser'
  • Skip and shuffle songs on MP3 and CD players [microchip made it possible]


  • Method of audio-file compression set by Motion Picture Expert Group [MPEG] and complies with BSI and ISO standards.
  • Removed inaudible parts of the file - converts audible to digital format
  • Smaller than previous - better than CD's and Cassette as you can store thousands now!
  • Good sound quality still - also from the Internet [i.e. Apple's iTunes store]
  • Took a while to become popular - cassette and CD just fine - and stroage of MP3 wasn't yet developed properly
  • But internet boom changed it all - an widespread PC use also
  • 1990s: lots of music illegally downloads [copyright infringement] but iTunes + Co changed it
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Technological Developments - Battery

  • lower energy requirement: more devices portable
  • type of battery = type of application
  • smaller size of product = developed smaller / different batteries

How do they work?

  • two electrode in electrolyte [acid, alkaline or salts]
  • one electrode decomposes = energy
  • salts dissolve = ions
  • ions move between electrodes - carry charge
  • one electrode collects - the other electrode loses [decomposes]
  • faster decomposition = more energy used by the product

Some battery types:

  • Zinc-Carbon: cheap, AA, C, D dry cell [acidic paste]
  • Alkaline: more expensive like Duracell [alkaline]
  • Lead-Acid: cars [acidic]
  • Lithium Ion: expensive, high-end i.e. phones, laptops. Good weight:power / rechargeable
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Technological Developments - TV

  • Analogue:
    • Composite Signal from transmitting station / cassette
    • Beam of varying intensity = 'line'
      • Image
      • Signal to send beam back + Signal to send beam up to the top of the screen
      • Sound
      • [Colour TV] Signal to turn phosphor dots on/off
  • Digital:
    • 0s and 1s like computers
    • Image more stable + high resolution
    • More sophisticated signal electronics
  • HDTV:
    • Higher resolution using Thin-Film Transistor, LCD or Plasma technology
      • TFT: LCD display with transistor for each pixel. Rapid response i.e. mouse movement
    • Unit dept reduced + weight = can hang on walls
  • Projection TV:
    • 40" or more = projector. Image from CRT / LCD shone from front / rear onto surface
    • Rear: from back [all-in-one] / Front: from front [screen one end / projector at other]
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Impact of ICT - Mech - Elec + Miniaturisation

Mechanics to Electronics:

  • Moving parts - solid state components [rotating phone dial - buttons]
  • Removal = fewer parts so less likely to break / less friction / less 'wear and tear'


  • Transistor (1947), Integrated Circuit (1959) and Microprocessor (1971)
  • Products which switch signals or control current - smaller now!
  • More computing power + more functions
  • More demand = more manufacturing = development of robots = cheaper overall
  • Moore: 'no.of circuits etched into silicon double every year' [actually occurs every 18 months]
    • So - computers 100x more powerful every 10 years
  • First computer (1946): 18,000 valves, 30 tonnes, 120m2
  • Chip (1971): thumb-sized, 2,300 transistors
  • Now: 55 million transistors in some home computers


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Impact of ICT - Digitalisation + Software


  • Analogue to digital = more efficient
  • Binary digits [0s and 1s]
  • Micro-processors can read it in under one millionth of a second
  • Data transmitted electronically and 're-assembled' at end destination with no loss of data


  • Programmes written to perform tasks for the user
  • Product can be changed = no hardwear change
  • Microsoft free Anti-Virus software + Apple's iOS updates
  • Electronic limbs: speed, responsiveness, angle, grip pressure all changeable


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Intelligent Systems and Interlinked Products

Micro-chips allowed things to be programmed and controlled [i.e. washing machines]

Products = now interact with each other [i.e. bluetooth / infra-red = wire-less photo transfer]

Computers send / recieve info. Music downloaded and played. Banking transactions via internet

Products now multifunctional too i.e.iPhones

ICT + Internet:

  • 1950s and 60s: communication to survive a nuclear missile attack
  • Users = access computer at same time = emails developed + conferencing
  • Mass Communication
  • 'Web' - public's 'internet' by Tim Berner's Lee
  • Scientists needed to communicate and access complex info at the same time
  • Using hypertext = searchable platform


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Intelligent Systems and Interlinked Products

Radio Frequency Identification Tags [RFID]:

  • Attached to product + info about it [ingredients, batch number, date of construction]
  • Will make barcodes obsolete [no longer needed/meets needs of user]
  • Three main components in RFID Systems:
    • Tag: electronic circuit and antenna. Stores data acting as transponder [sends info]
    • Reader: sends signal to tag and recieves info
    • Computer data base: recieves info from reader and processes it
  • Robust / withstand rain and damage yet still function
  • Several metre scanning distance + don't require direct line of sight [i.e. read through walls]
  • Active: own power supply, info can be changed + longer distance. Used in Kanban systems
  • Passive: powered by electromagnetic waves from reader [cheaper - good for mass]
  • Also used on individual products [i.e. cans on 'smart shelves' which update stock automatically, pet chips and hospital identity bracelets.

( RFID Tag

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Intelligent Systems and Interlinked Products

Fluidic Self-Assembly:

  • Manufacturing technique - very small integrated circuits i.e. RFID tags
  • Large scale - low cost
  • Nanoblocks [tiny circuits] in suspension liquid
  • Spread over substrate with self-align [Poke-Yoke] holes matching circuit shape = connection
  • Millions can be placed at any one time accurately
  • Flat screen TVs, PC monitors and HDTVs or flexi-polymer filmer also achievable


  • Nanotech: "manipulation and rearrangement of individual atoms to create useful materials, systems and devices"
  • Nanotech: nanometers [atomic level - one thousandth of a micrometre / 40,000 smaller than human hair width]
  • Hope to reduce it to molecular level - 'molecular nanotechnology'
  • Could lead to robots, motors and devices smaller than a human cell
  • Current - some so small only seen with electron micrograph.
  • Properties of materials modifiable - superior in quality than before i.e. stiffness, conductivity
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Nanotech Products:


  • Toyota: nanotech in bumpers = 60% lighter, 100% more resistant to dents. Better for environment as lighter = less fuel, and more durable = less obsolete
  • Air-bags: tiny pressure sensors to trigger them. Plates under rapid deceleration = circuit = bag
  • Carbon nano-tubes: on car body to help electrostatic paint spraying - no need for primer


  • Stain Resistance: liquids run off rather than stay i.e. Gap's stain resistant Khaki's. Less washing = better for environment?

Electrical Consumer Goods:

  • Kodak: colour screens form nanostructured polymers + OLEDS. Flexible and light. Good brightness and low energy use [phones, TVs, PDA]
  • IBM + HP: nano-chips = instant boot up. NRAM = remember to run programmes so don't need start up. Increased conductivity = faster and less energy.
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Nanotech Products:


  • Bones: calcium and phosphate altered at molecular level - developed a substitute for bone
  • Filters: filters small enough to remove viruses + other molecules. Great for disinfecting water / droughts / third world
  • Future: small robots to go inside the body - carry out operations / remove tumours / administer medicine to parts of the body

(   Nano 'bones' can be accepted by the body as if they were real...

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Technology Push

Linear Process: scientific or technological developments [often as a result of R&D] is passed to a design team to create a useful product out of it. Manufacturers then build them, and the marketing department will promote and sell the idea...

"Over the Wall" Model: team often isolated from each other + user. Final product - 'thrown' over wall at user [decide what to do with it / even have a use? High-Risk Strategy - good and bad

SUCCESS - Sony Walkman: 1980, Akio Morita [CEO Sony at the time] complained that portable device + headphones 'too big'. Took cassette recorder ['Pressman'], minus recorder, add stereo amplifier + light weight headphones. Borrowed current + used new tech - success despite no 'percieved' market - product consumers weren't aware they needed - agressive selling = success

FAILURE - Sinclair C5: Jan 1985 - electrically assisted vehicle. Concept good, but too low, open [British Weather], motor burned out, poor visibility, unsafe, lack of adjustability. Didn't think about client's needs, and even using Stirling Moss to promote it didn't work... recievership Oct 1985 ( First Sony 'Walkman'                                               ( Sinclair C5

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Market Pull + Coupling Model

Market Pull: stimulus comes from needs of society or specific section of the market

Detailed analysis of research: identifes a need / want, and what products may or may not suit it. Product should be successful - if it was desired by the market...

But: consumers cannot demand products which don't exist / cannot be made due to no available technology to do something. No guarantee that the need can be met just because it exists!

Coupling Model: successful design can emerg by getting the balance between technology and market considerations. Market needs and state-of-the-art technology are vital in all stages of product development, from initial thoughts, concepts, all the way to final design and manufacture.

( Technology Push / Market Pull / Coupling

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Product Life Cycles + Historical Influence

Life Cycle: [in this case] introduction of a product to its obsolescence                        Obsolescence: product superseded by better models. Some have 'built-in' obscolescence for safety / ensure continued demand [i.e. disposable razor]. How long products last depend upon:

  • technology push - changes in material and technology available
  • market pull - does the consumer want it anymore?
  • sales - is it selling?
  • what the product is?
  • how technically complex is it?


  • Introduction: newly released to market. Slow - people can't see benefits. Risky / little profit
  • Growth: advertising starts to work. Diffuses and people see benefits. Steady profit rise. Competitors might bring out new brand
  • Maturity: sales level off. Market saturated with competitors. Big companies monitor market - new designs waiting so to maintain market share / or aggressively market theirs to stay ahead
  • Decline: completely saturated, profits drop off and fall. Maintain product? Or stop + new one? i.e. vinyl + cassette - CD - Minidisc - MP3 = CD's obsolete + phone - MP3 player obsolete?
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Planned Obsolescence:

Product Churning: deliberately keep product's life short + bring out new products frequently before original has become obsolete [maturity or decline]. Use advertising to convince consumers they 'need' the newest version. Clear to see in electronic's sector...

Why churn?

  • maintain stady profits
  • maintain market advtantage over competitors / market share
  • because of technological advancements

Some things need obsolenscence to be safe: razors and hypodermic syringe                         Some things could be used longer than we think: cars, phones, laptops, etc. We get rid of them though before they lose value - but we could make them more durable in the first place? But this would be very expensive...                                                     (  <--- Planned Obsolescence of the Apple 'iPod'

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Influence of Fashion on Obsolescence:

We change our tastes due to fashion: our clothes, wardrobes, interiors, cars, food all change with trends, and this maintains obsolescence and market pull / demand

Big Companies: employ people to predict fashion tastes and trends because it is such an influential factor in how we shop. Colours, fabrics, textures, finishes are all considered, to produce seasonal schemes and matching products - colours, etc become quickly outdated...

But - what about individualism?

People want to be 'individual' in our apparently post-modern society: want more choice, more freedom to shop, more expression and ability to change things - and FAST... This poses a huge challenge to manufacturers, who must always be wary of overnight shifts in products i.e. Loom Bands / t-shirts with slogans. So, FMS + end effector robots come in really handy here...

(  Loom Bands became an overnight sensation across the globe

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Product Life Cycles + Examples


Different products will have different life-cycles - profits are usually non-existent with introduction of a new product, but wil often rapidly increase in the growth phase

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Product Life Cycles + Examples

  • Fad: kids toys like Tamagotchi's and Loom Bands - rapid emergence and drop no maturity
  • Fashion: seasonal and based upon trends i.e. kitten heels / wheely trainers / 'sports luxe'. Often repeat themselves every few years, but have a short life span
  • Basic / Sustained: items such as light-bulbs and Barcelona Chair [Mies van der Rohe] that are constantly demanded [or Gov = obligatory i.e. CFL now main bulb - no incandescent]
  • Decline: i.e. videocassette players, CDs and CFL bulbs [Gov intervention] - no longer needed
  • Slow Growth: solar panels / electric or city cars - long growth / little profit or sales
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Scales of Production: One-Off + Batch


  • Designed and manufactured for single, specific situations
  • i.e. custom kitchen / jewellery
  • generally hand-made with a wide variety of tools
  • very expensive

Batch Production:

  • set number [few to thousands]
  • Ceramics good example Wedgwood could make 1000s of 10", 8" or 6" plates
  • separate departments with specialist equipment
  • moved through system - different finishes, techniques, processes
  • Suits: off the peg - basic sizes and multiples cut at any one time [die-cut or band-saw]
  • Cars are made in batch, with many cars being painted different colours with different interiors to suit the client's specification
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Scales of Production: Mass + Continuous

Mass Production:

  • high volume / standard components [i.e. car wiper, nuts, bolts, buttons]
  • very few things actually 'mass produced'
  • polysytrene cups good idea / bottles too
  • disposable - once used thrown away [recycled]
  • moulds are very expensive - but output soon covers the cost

Continuous Production:

  • continuously being manufactured
  • stopping it could cause a problem [i.e. steel industry - hot steel continuously made into ingots]
  • petro-chemical industry: oils, petrol, diesel, lubricants and materials to produce plastics
  • screws, bricks, food production [Coca Cola], sewage treatment, etc

( Coca-Cola is produced in large volumes at a time due to high demand...

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Using Jigs

  • make lots of same product at once, the processes are likely to be different or not actually as time consuming as making just one
  • use jigs for repeated shapes / measurements so that they are all the same
  • joining and finishing may be less refined for speed i.e. single product may have solid rivets, but lots may be electric arc welded
  • other machinery is highly specialised on a production line - very rarely are there any generic tools!

( Jigs can be used to out the right shape again and again...

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