A2 Chemistry - Unit 1 Module 3 analysis summary

Summary notes made on F324 module 3 analysis from my OCR chemistry textbook (blue with SEM of a growing fluropatite crystal on cover)! Words in light blue are definitions that need to be learnt and the 3 sections in dark blue are included in the textbook for background knowledge but are NON-EXAMINABLE!

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Chemistry: Unit 1 Module 3

Basics of chromatography

Chromatography is a technique used to separate components in a mixture and identify them by
comparing their Rf/retention time value to a database.

Mobile phase ­ the phase that moves liquid or gas
Stationary phase ­ the phase that doesn't move…

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Rfvalue(s) ­ if the samples
aren't visible use a UV light
Limitations Similar compounds often Thousands of chemicals have the
have similar R fvalues ­ same retention time, peak shape and
components hide behind each detector response, so it doesn't
other positively identify most components
Unknown compounds have Unknown compounds…

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A strong magnetic field, applied using an electromagnet, and low-energy radio frequency radiation
are required for NMR spectroscopy.

Nuclear spin (non-examinable) :
Protons and neutrons are collectively known as nucleons.
Nucleons can `spin' in one of two directions
Opposite spins pair up, but if there is an odd number of…

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The number of peaks on the spectrum is equal to the number of different carbon environments
the molecule contains.
The chemical shift is equal to the type of carbon environment, it can be deduced using a
Size of the peak tells us nothing!

The number of peaks…

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Advantages Disadvantages
Harmless (unlike x-rays only use Cannot be used on patients with
low-energy radio-frequency radiation) ferromagnetic metal (Fe, Co, Ni) implants
Non-invasive less risk of further or those metals in any other form as they
complications/injury or infection will be attracted to the electromagnet
People with pace maker cannot…

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