F334 - Chemistry of Materials

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F334 ­ Chemistry of Materials
What's in a Medicine?
(a) describe acids in terms of the Brønsted­Lowry theory as proton donors, and bases
as proton acceptors, and identify the proton donor and proton acceptor in an
acid­base reaction
Bonding and structure
(b) draw and interpret simple electron `dotandcross ' diagrams to show how atoms
bond through ionic, covalent and dative covalent bonds and be able to describe a
simple model of metallic bonding;

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CH 4, NH
3, H 2O and SF
6) and ions (such as NH
4 ) with up to six outer
pairs of electrons (any combination of bonding pairs and lone pairs) (no treatment of
Molecule Shape Electron pairs
Methane, CH 4 Tetrahedral 4 bonding pairs
Ammonia, NH 3 Pyramidal 3 bonding pairs, 1 lone pair
Water, H2 O
Bent 2 bonding pairs, 2 lone pairs
Sulfur hexafluoride, SF 6 Octahedral 6 bonding pairs
Ammonium ion, NH 4
Tetrahedral 4 bonding pairs
hybridisation or…read more

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AS course (synoptic)
Organic reactions…read more

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alkenes (PR) and alcohols (PR) (synoptic)…read more

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III) chloride solution, to give a
purple colouration; reaction with acyl chlorides to form esters…read more

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Reaction mechanisms
(k) describe the mechanism of the nucleophilic addition reaction between a carbonyl
compound and hydrogen cyanide, using `curly arrows' and bond polarities…read more

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Applications of organic chemistry
(i) understand that more effective medicines can be obtained by modifying the
structure of existing medicines
(m) discuss given examples and understand that combinatorial chemistry is used to
make a large number of related compounds together, so that their potential
effectiveness as medicines can be assessed by largescale screening
(n) recall the meaning of the concept `atom economy' (synoptic) and understand that
most reactions used in chemical synthesis can be classified as: rearrangement,
addition, substitution, elimination; understand that a condensation reaction…read more

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Step I ­ Is it safe?
Step II ­ Does it work?
Step III ­ Is it better than the standard treatment?
Modern analytical techniques
(p) describe the technique of thinlayer chromatography (TLC), including location of
spots using iodine or ultraviolet radiation, and interpret results in terms of number of
spots and matching heights or R f values with known compounds; understand that
chromatography can be used for the purification of an organic substance
(q) interpret and predict mass spectra: identify the M+ peak and…read more

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Periodic Table; use relative electronegativity values to predict bond polarity in
a covalent bond; decide whether a molecule is polar or non polar from its shape and
the polarity of its bonds; explain, give examples of and recognise in given examples
the following types of intermolecular bonds: instantaneous dipole­induced dipole
bonds (including dependence on branching and chain length of organic molecules),
permanent dipole­permanent dipole bonds, hydrogen bonds (synoptic)
(b) explain and predict the effect of temperature, crystallinity and chain length on the
properties of polymers:…read more

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­ there are more
intermolecular bonds leading to greater strength; explain that flexibility depends on
the ability of the polymer chains to slide over each other
(c) explain the following ways that chemists can modify the properties of a polymer to
meet particular needs: colddrawing to make the structure more crystalline,
copolymerisation, use of plasticisers
(d) understand that the properties of all materials depend on their structure and
bonding and explain examples given relevant information
Organic functional groups
(e) recognise members of the following homologous…read more


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