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F334 ­ Chemistry of Materials

What's in a Medicine?

(a) describe acids in terms of the Brønsted­Lowry theory as proton donors, and bases
as proton acceptors, and identify the proton donor and proton acceptor in an
acid­base reaction

Bonding and structure
(b) draw and interpret simple electron `dotandcross '…

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use the electron pair repulsion principle to predict and explain the shapes of simple
molecules (such as CH 4, NH

3, H 2O and SF
6) and ions (such as NH
4 ) with up to six outer
pairs of electrons (any combination of bonding pairs and lone pairs)…

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(d) use systematic nomenclature to name and interpret the names of diols, carboxylic
acids, dicarboxylic acids, esters, aldehydes and ketones, and other organic compounds
whose naming was required in the AS course (synoptic)

Organic reactions

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(e) recall the reactions (as described in the modules named) of halogenoalkanes (ES),
alkenes (PR) and alcohols (PR) (synoptic)

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(f) describe and explain the acidic nature of carboxylic acids, and their reaction with
alkalis and carbonates

(g) describe the reactions of alcohol with carboxylic acids in the presence of

concentrated sulfuric acid or concentrated hydrochloric acid to form esters
(h) describe the following properties of phenols: acidic nature, and…

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(i) describe the following reactions involving carbonyl compounds (aldehydes and
ketones): formation of carbonyl compounds by oxidation of alcohols using acidified
dichromate with the need to distil in the case of aldehydes (synoptic); oxidation of
aldehydes to carboxylic acids using acidified dichromate, under reflux; reaction with
hydrogen cyanide to form…

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Applications of organic chemistry
(i) understand that more effective medicines can be obtained by modifying the
structure of existing medicines
(m) discuss given examples and understand that combinatorial chemistry is used to
make a large number of related compounds together, so that their potential
effectiveness as medicines can be assessed…

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(o) understand that testing a medicine involves clinical trials which answer the
following questions about a potential new drug:
Step I ­ Is it safe?
Step II ­ Does it work?
Step III ­ Is it better than the standard treatment?
Modern analytical techniques

(p) describe the technique of thinlayer…

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(a) explain the term electronegativity ; recall qualitatively the electronegativity trends
in the Periodic Table; use relative electronegativity values to predict bond polarity in
a covalent bond; decide whether a molecule is polar or non polar from its shape and
the polarity of its bonds; explain, give examples of and…

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have more effect, leading to greater strength; chain length ­ there are more
intermolecular bonds leading to greater strength; explain that flexibility depends on
the ability of the polymer chains to slide over each other
(c) explain the following ways that chemists can modify the properties of a polymer to…


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