Who was to blame for the Cold War?

Covers Chapter 4 of the 20th Century option in CIE IGCSE History 0470 for 2017-2019 examination.

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  • Who was to blame for the Cold War?
    • Grand Alliance
      • Causes of tension
        • Lend-Lease
        • Wartime disagreement
          • War conferences
            • Tehran- Poland and USSR borders moved
            • Yalta- Germany split; reparations set; early elections in Eastern Europe; UN
            • Potsdam- London Poles to join Lublin Poles; Germans returned to Germany; UN created; reparations confirmed; USSR gained land
        • Ideological differences
      • War conferences
        • Tehran- Poland and USSR borders moved
        • Yalta- Germany split; reparations set; early elections in Eastern Europe; UN
        • Potsdam- London Poles to join Lublin Poles; Germans returned to Germany; UN created; reparations confirmed; USSR gained land
    • Soviet control of Eastern Europe
      • Czechoslovakia
        • Communist government created; new elections blocked
      • Hungary
        • Rigged elections; communists merged with Social Democrats
      • Poland
        • Rigged elections; coalition government; opposition arrested
      • Romania
        • Coalition government; communists given important roles; rigged elections; King made to abdicate
      • Bulgaria
        • Coalition government; purged of anti-communists; monarchy banned; opposition removed
      • Yugoslavia
        • Tito refused to be controlled by Stalin; remained independently communist
      • Iran
        • Stalin broke agreement to leave Iran after the war; troops forced to leave after pressure from the US and UN
      • Turkey
        • Stalin wanted a naval base in the Dardanelles; unsuccessful because Turkey was supported by the West
    • US reaction to expansionism
      • Ended Lend-Lease
        • May 1945, before the Potsdam Conference
      • Dropped atomic bomb on Japan
        • Maybe to show Stalin the power the USA held
      • Iron Curtain speech
      • Ended Grand Alliance
        • Greece civil war; Britain could no longer afford to intervene; US had to step in to stop Greece becoming communist
          • Truman Doctrine- US promised to fight communism everywhere
          • Marshall Plan- economic aid to help Europe recover and therefore stop communism spreading
    • Germany and the Berlin Blockade
      • Zones of occupation
        • US, UK and France joined zones to create Trizone in 1948
        • US made Marshall Aid available to West Germany; Stalin searched all shipments
      • Blockade   and airlift
        • New currency introduced by the West for all German zones; Stalin did not allow it
        • New currency made Stalin cut off West Berlin by all transport and turned off their electricity
        • Took supplies to West Berlin by plane for 11 months
        • Stalin did not dare shoot down any planes; stopped blockade in May 1949
      • NATO and the Warsaw Pact formed
    • Who was responsible for starting the Cold War?
      • USA
        • 'Dollar Imperialism' made US get involved in Europe
          • Needed a market in Europe in case of another Depression
          • Marshall Aid meant to help a capitalist Europe recover
        • Creation of Bizonia and Trizonia a breach of the Postdam agreement
        • Truman did not trust the Soviets
      • USSR
        • Communism was naturally expansionist; Stalin thought only communism or capitalism could survive
        • Stalin did not stick to the Yalta agreement
        • COMECON- ensured all Soviet Bloc had the same economic structure as the USSR
        • COMINFORM-intended to undermine capitalist countries
        • Stalin a constant leader; obsessed with Soviet security
          • All Soviet policies were decided by him
  • Causes of tension
    • Lend-Lease
    • Wartime disagreement
      • Ideological differences

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