aqa psychology vulnerability to addiction key studies

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  • vulnerability to addiction
    • stress
      • Driessen et al found that 30% of drug addicts/ 15% of alcoholics suffered from PTSD
      • it has been found that 40% of army enlisted men used heroin at least once
        • only some developed addictions
    • personality
      • Teeson et al found that people addicted to drugs have higher than average scores on neuroticism and psychoticism
      • parke et al found that competitiveness had a strong positive predicted value for pathological gambling
        • Park et al also found deferment gratification had a relatively strong negative predictive value
        • sensation seeking was shown not be a significant predictor of pathological gambling
    • peers
      • Sussman and Ames found that friend and peer use of drugs is a strong predictor of drug use among teenages
      • Thombs et al found a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and close friends alcohol consumption in 2213 high school students
      • Bauman et al found that 80% of adolescents aged 12-14 whose parents did not smoke had never tried to smoke them selves
      • Murray et al found that families who were strongly against smoking, the children were 7 times less likely to smoke
    • age
      • Sharm found that nicotine had a greater activating effect on the neural structure of adolescents than adults
      • fidler et al found that adolescents who had smoked just one cigarette by the age of 11 were twice as likely to be regular smokers by the age of 14
      • the Health canada youth smoking survey found that early onset smokers (12-15) years old were more likely to drink alcohol
      • Helfer found that 17% of swiss women over the age of 75 used painkillers or sleeping pills every day 6% also used tranquillisers
        • 46% of men over the age of 75% also drank alcohol every day compared to just 6% of 25-34 year olds

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