PSYCHOLOGY AS UNIT 1 (MEMORY AND METHODS)

MEMORY AND METHODS

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  • Created by: rosielulu
  • Created on: 16-04-14 21:41
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  • UNIT1
    • MEMORY
      • SEMANTIC ENCODING IN LTM:BADDELEY
        • RESULTS: recall was worse for semantically similar words compared to dissimilar e.g. 55%:85%
        • METHOD: britissh housewives were divided in to 4 groups and shown 10 words:                   A)  Acoustically similar words                    B) Acoustically dissimilar               C) Semantically similar                  D) Semantically dissimilar               After 20 mins they were asked to recall in the correct order this was done 4 times
        • CONCLUSION: Encoding in LTM is mainly semantic
        • AIM: to investigate encoding in LTM
      • CAPACITY: amount of info a store can hold         DURATION:length of time memory store holds info.                             ENCODING: Transferring info in to a form that it can be stored in memory
      • EVALUATION OF MOST STUDIES:      lab-establishes cause and effect-high control over extraneous variables- can be repeated         low ecological validity-not test memory in a realistin way- cannot be generalised
      • THE PRIMACY AND RECENCY EFFECT: GLANZER AND CUNITZ
        • CONCLUSION: 2 seperate stores in memory          -primacy effect occurs-able hto rehearse first few items on the list            -Recency effect occurs-still fresh in STM.
        • RESULTS:Recall best for first and last few items-best recall for last
        • AIM:investigate if recall of words is affected by order presented
        • METHOD: hear long list of words-recall any order
      • ACOUSTIC ENCODING IN STM:CONRAD
        • RESULTS:more difficult to recall strings of letters that sound the same
        • METHOD: Visually presented with a series of letters-recall them.    TWO CONDITIONS: letters sounded similar, letters sounded disimilar
        • CONCLUSION: STM codes information ecoustically
        • AIM: investigate encoding in STM
      • REHEARSAL:      MAITENECE: maintains info in the STM in which it has limited capacity and duration.              ELABORATIVE: info transferred in to LTM which has unlimited capacity
      • EVIDENCE FOR LTM DURATION-BAHRICK ET AL
        • RESULTS: 1) 90% correct after 14years, 60% after 47years.         2) 60% accurate after 7years, less than 20% after 47 years
        • METHOD: interviewd 392graduates from american high school over 50yr period-shown photographs from a year book.            1) RECOGNITION GROUP: given names-match to person in photo            2) RECALL GROUP: name people in photots from memory
        • EVALUATION: STRENGTH: high ecological validity         LIMITATION: low control over extraneous variables
        • AIM:investigate the length of time memories can be retained for in LTM
        • CONCLUSION: LTM is virtually lifelong
      • KEY FEATURES OF THE WORKING MODEL MEMORY:           ATKINSON AND SHIFRON makes a distinction between the different stores and suggests LTM and STM are unitary stores.                 This suggests one store can be damaged when one isn't. structured model
      • CAPACITY OF STM:           SIMON: shorter memory span-large chunking.         JACOBS:average digit span 9.3 items, 7.3 letters                                      Miller: 7+/-2-chunk things in 3's
        • EVALUATION: limitations:age of sample affects the conclusions-its contradictory    strength: iut has practical implications
      • CLIVE WEARING CASE STUDY
        • He caught herpes which attacked his brain and cause encephalitis.          Anterograde amnesia - unable to encode new memories as part of his brain was damaged.  He spends everyday restarting his memories            Retrograde amnesia -  Remember little of his life before 1985. Greets his wife happily thinking he hasn't seen her in years when she leaves the room for a few secs. He recalls how to play the piano and conduct a choir. But once he stops he forgets he has just played.
      • LIMITATIONS OF THE WORKING MEMORY MODEL: Over emphasise rehearsal, not fully supported, stm no longer single store
      • DURATION OF STM-PETERSON AND PETERSON
        • RESULTS: Recall 80% trigrams after 3secs. 18secs fewer than 10% recall correctly
        • METHOD: presented with consonant trigram- 3letters CPW    -Prevented- counting backwards in 3's from a certain number.           After intervals 3-18SECS asked to stop counting and repeat trigram.          Recorded after each time interval if correctly recalled
        • CONCLUSION: if prevented info vanishes rapidly from STM
        • AIM: test how long STM can last when rehearsal is prevented
      • THE WORKING MEMORY MODEL
        • THE CENTRAL EXECUTIVE:        In charge of co-ordinating the 2 slave.             Limited capacity, process info from any mode, acts like an attention system
          • directing info in slave systems.                      calling info from LTM        Merging info together
          • THE VISUO SPATIAL SCRATCHPAD: stores/manipulates visual and spatial info, deals with what items look like, active during visual tasks
        • 3 ain components of STM : the central executive, the phonological loop, the visuo-spatial scratchpad
        • MEMORY IMPROVEMENT:     strategy one: organising info.  strategy two: give info meaning
          • CRAIK AND TULVING
            • RESULTS: more likely to recall better when they processed the words through semantic processing
            • METHOD: were shown words and were asked questions, the de[pth of processing required for the questions were different. some questions required semantic processing
            • CONCLUSION: giving meaning to work improves recall
            • AIM: investigate if material that is processed for meaning was recalled better
          • BOWER
        • YUILLE AND CUTSHALL
        • LOFTUS ET AL- ANXIETY
        • POOLE AND LYDNSAY- AGE
        • LOFTUS AND PALMER-MISLEADING INFORMATION
          • RESULTS: mean estimate highest:  40.8 smashed              lowest estimate  contacted 31.8
            • split in to 5 conditions:         smashed               collided             bumped                  hit                        contacted
          • CONCLUYSION: post event information can cause material to be altered before it is in store
          • EXPERIMENT 2
            • 150 participants split in to 3 groups. shown a 1 min video clip of a car accident. then asked if they saw any broken glass on the floor. 16 said yes for smashed, 6 said yes in the control group
        • ANASTI AND RHOADES-AGE
        • BADDELEY AND HITCH-THE WORKING MEMORY MODEL
          • RESULTS: task 1 was completed more slowly with both tasks
          • METHOD: given task using central executive then put in to one of 3 conditions aswell.  CONDITION 1:task using articulary loop repeatthe.   CONDITION 2 using both articulatory loop and central executive repeating numbers CONDITION 3 no additional task.
          • EVALUATION:     strength: best current way of how to explain stm.    limitation: STM is difficult to study
          • AIM: investigate if you can use two slave systems at the same time simustaneous
          • CONCLUSION:  completing two tasks using the same slave system causes difficulty
        • COGNITIVE INTERVIEW:      CONTEXT RESISTENT-recreate image of situation                REPORT EVERYTHING-report all detail             RECALL IN REVERSE ORDER       RECALL FROM A DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVE
    • RESEARCH METHODS
      •    EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS   MATCHED PAIRS:                   Different people are in different conditions but participants are matched on a key variable                Strengths:  participant effects less likely                Weaknesses: Difficult and time consuming          INDEPENDENT GROUPS           Different people are in different conditions             Strengths: No order effects, same materials can be used.          Weaknesses: Participant variables, order effects
      • SELF-REPORT METHODS   QUESTIONs             Closed: ·        - Easy to analyse        -Lots of information lost                             Open:  · - Lots of rich information    -  Difficult to analyse               Strengths:  Easy to deal with misunderstanding, good for sensitive topics.                 Weaknesses:  Interviewer effects, misinterpretation of data.                         Self Report Data:  Participants can lie/give false info
      • EXPERIMENTS:                   Lab: Controlled setting   Field: Natural setting, IV manipulated   Natural: – IV occurs naturally
        •  FIELD EXPERIMENT   Strength: High Ecological Validity.   Weakness: Low control over variables.                           LAB EXPERIMENT   Strength: High control over extraneous variables.   Weakness: Low ecological validity, demand characteristics
      • jCORRELATIONS   No IV / DV, only variables.   Show a relationship between 2 variables   Positive Correlation:  Both variables go up / both variables go down.   Negative Correlation:  One variable goes up as the other goes down
      • OBSERVATIONS                   Controlled: Controlled setting e.g. lab ·             -High control over variables -Low Ecological Validity                  Natural: Natural setting.         -High E. Validity         -Low control over variables.             Disclosed:    -Participants know that they are being observed. ·     -Ethical ·     Participants may change their behaviour          Undisclosed:  -Participants do not know that they are being observed. ·     -Measuring natural behaviour ·     Unethical               Participant: Researcher is part of the group that they are observing                      Non-Participant: Researcher is not part of the group that they are observing                      Event sampling: Recording behaviour every time it occurs.                       Time-point sampling: Recording only behaviour that occurs at given points in time                           Time interval sampling – Observing and recording what happens in fixed time
      • SAMPLING:      TARGET POPULATION:The wider group of people that the sample is drawn from and whom the research is aimed at.                                            RANDOM SAMPLE:has an equal chance of being selected (like a raffle).                              OPPOURTUNITY SAMPLE:most accessible members of target population.                           VOLUNTERR SAMPLE.
        • Strengths / Weaknesses:           Random Sampling:  Most representative of the target population, take the longest to conduct.             Opportunity Sampling/volunteer sampling:  Quick and easy to conduct but not representative of the target population.
      • REPEATED MEASURES   Strengths: Participant variables eliminated, less participants needed.             Weaknesses: Order/practice effects (Counterbalancing to reduce order effects), time consuming
      • GRAPHS: -title,key,label axis
      • ETHICS:         =informed consent         -withdrawal      -deception     -debriefing      -confidentiality -protection from harm
      • VARIABLES:  IV:what the researcher manipulates.                 DV:what is being measured.                           EVS:any other variable than can affect the dv.
      • CASE STUDY:  Strength: Produce rich, detailed information, high ecological validity.               Weakness: Difficult to replicate, can’t generalise the findings to everyone.
      • PIOLET STUDY: small study run through main study e.g. practice run through
      • MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY: mean,median,mode
      • RELIABILITY:can repeat and get same results.           VALIDITY:measuring what you're supposed to be measuring
      • QUALITATIVE-words            QUANTITATIVE- numbers
      • AIM: to investigate      HYPOTHESIS:prediction

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