Turning to Crime A2 OCR

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  • Turning To Crime
    • UPBRINGING (SOCIAL)
      • Disrupted Families
        • Farrington- To document the start, duration and end of offending behaviour from childhood to adulthood in families
        • Risk Factors- Low intelligence, Poor parenting, Hyperactive, Family history of criminality, Poverty
      • Learning from Others
        • Sutherland- Theory of Differential Association and the nine principles of criminal behaviour
      • Poverty and Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods
        • Wikstrom- The Peterborough Adolescent Development Study (PADS). Investigate the links between individual characteristics (morality, self-control, disposition) and the life-style risk factors
    • COGNITIVE EXPLANATIONS
      • Moral Development
        • Morality- Cognitive process, ability to reason about what is right or wrong, the consequences of their behavior and how their actions would influence other people
        • Kohlberg- Pre-conventional morality, Conventional morality, Post-conventional morality. Moral development in children- to find evidence in support of a progression through the stages of moral development
      • Criminal thinking Patterns
        • Yochelson and Samenow- A study of thinking patterns of criminals. To understand the make up of the criminal personality
      • Social Cognition
        • Byers, Crider and Biggers- To investigate attribution bias in offenders who had committed 'hate crime' against the Amish community
        • Internal attributions- the person attributes the cause of behaviour within themselves. External attributions- the person attributes the cause to an environmental or social factor.
    • BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS
      • Brain Dysfuntion
        • Raine et al- To investigate patterns of brain activity in murderers and non-murderers using PET scans
      • Genes and Serotonin
        • Brunner et al- a case study of violence in a family with genetic abnormality
      • Gender differences in crime
        • Daly and Wilson- to find out if homicide rates would vary as a function of local life expectancy
        • Evolutionary theories- suggest that the male role of a hunter and protector predisposes them to more risky behaviour than females and that this inherent drive leads them to seek danger, take risks and in modern society may lead to crime

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