Ethnic Minorities 1981-1992

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  • TO WHAT EXTENT DID THE POSITION OF ETHNIC MINORITIES CHANGE 1981-1992
    • POLITICS
      • Harold Washington Mayor of Chicago 1983
        • city dominated by Irish-American politicians
        • offered moderate social policies crossing racial divide
        • high influence on black Americans
          • 80% turnout for blacks same as white middle class suburban
      • Jesse Jackson ran for democratic party nomination 1984 and 1988
        • 84 campaign unpopular
          • 21% votes in primary election, 8% in delegate votes
        • more organised 1988 campaign
          • winning number of primary elections
      • Andrew Young Mayor of Atlanta, Georgia 1981
        • significant due to racist past, e.g. Jim Crow laws
      • success was not celebrated by all, only specific individuals
    • BUSSINESS
      • civil equality gained in 1950's and 1960's began to bear fruit in 1980's
      • 1992: black owned businesses rose to 621,000
        • compared to a few hundred thousand in 1960's
      • successful individuals e.g. Oprah Winfrey
        • own chat show in 1986
          • distributed in 140 countries
        • listed in Forbes Magazine in 2003 as the first female black billionaire
    • POPULAR CULTURE
      • 1989 Denzel Washington won best supporting actor for role in Glory
      • 1992 Spike Lee directed and stared in Malcolm X
      • Michael Jackson excelled in music
        • 1982 Thriller was in charts for 80 weeks
          • including 37 weeks as number 1
          • video won 12 Grammy awards
      • many blacks became household names
    • SPORT
      • 1998 excelled in NFL, NBA and major league baseball
        • 80% of NFL
        • 60% of NBA
          • Earvin 'Magic' Johnson of La Lakers was star player
        • 25% of major league baseball
      • Randell Cunningham became quarter back of Philadelphia eagles
        • position previously whites only
      • Carl Lewis won 4 olympic gold medals in 1984 LA Olympics (100m)
      • La Olympics 1984
        • black athletes won 40/49 US field and track medals
        • 10/11 boxing medals
    • RACIAL TENSIONS
      • June 1982 Chinese American clubbed to death
        • by two white car workers in Detroit
          • mistook him for Japanese and blamed him for lay offs in car industries
      • 1991 Rodney King brutally beaten to death by South central LA police
      • 1992 police acquitted sparking major riots
        • 54 killed and 2,400 injured
        • 17,000 arrested (half were Hispanic Americans)
        • 10,000 businesses destroyed many owed by Koreans

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