End of the cold war

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The End of the Cold War
"New Cold war", 197685
A new period of competition between the Soviet and Western Black, including a renewed arms race, the soviet
invasion of Afghanistan and crisis in Eastern Europe. Détente ended by 1980, and tension was like that or 1960s
The weakening of Détente
First issue was when Soviets placed SS20 medium range nuclear missiles in central Europe in 1976 that
could reach targets between 6005000 km away, threatening all NATO states in Europe.
NATO agreed that if an agreement weren't reached then the US would deploy 552 Pershing and other
nuclear equipped missiles in Europe by 1983.
An Agreement wasn't reached due to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Between 19837 in the FRG,
Britain, Belgium, the Netherlands and Italy, the missiles were installed, eliminating any soviet strategic
19791990 ­ Afghanistan ­ Détente ends in 1979, the proSoviet regime in Afghanistan was under
serious threat from its Muslim opponents, the Mujahedeen. To protect the regime, Soviet forces entered
Afghanistan on 25th December 1979. Western powers were alarmed that the USSR could get so close
to the West's oil supplies in the Middle East. President Carter described the Soviet action as `the most
serious threat to peace since the Second World War'. The USA secretly began to send very large
shipments of money, arms and equipment to Pakistan and from there to the USSR's Mujahedeen
opponents. The campaign became the Soviet Union's equivalent to the Vietnam War. It was a
nightmare campaign, virtually unwinnable for the Soviet forces, although they remained there until the
early 1990s.
o Further notes:
o The cost of the war was over $8.2 billion per year.
o 15, 000 people died as a result.
o This was a serious international crisis, because the Chinese saw it as USSR expansionism in S.
Asia. If they think this, so must the Americans. Fears that USSR was going to take over lots of
o Carter Doctrine: Carter, President of USA, decided to take firm approach with the USSR over
the invasion. He said that the USA would take military action to defend Persian Gulf region.
o Also promised US aid to all countries bordering Afghanistan. Similar to Truman Doctrine
because it involved using money to stop the spread of communism.
o Carter further created a rapid deployment force, stopped grain shipment to the USSR and
boycotted the Olympic games in Moscow.
Solidarity in Poland, 198082
Apart from the USSR Poland was militarily the most important country in the Soviet Bloc Because:

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It was the geographical link between the soviet Union and the GDR through which any attack on the west
or from it would occur
It provided 1/3 of all eastern European armed forces in the Warsaw Pact
Largest population of any soviet bloc state other than USSR and was heavily industrialised, making it
important economically.…read more

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In August 1980, strikes erupted throughout the country when the government once again, without any
previous warning, announced major increases in the price of food. In Gdansk, 20,000 workers under the
leadership of trade union activist Lech Walesa barricaded themselves into the Lenin Shipyards. Although
reaching agreement with their management they refused to stop striking until strikes elsewhere had been
resolved. This action led to the creation of Solidarity, which challenge the power of the PUWP.…read more

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The rejection of the SALT 2 Treaty
The deployment of Missiles in Western Europe
Support for the mujahedeen in Afghanistan.
Yuri Andropov
In November 1982, Brezhnev died and was replaced by Andropov. In 1983, Reagan announced the Strategic
Defence initiative (SDI) also known as "star wars" which was meant to be an antiballistic missile shield
composed of nuclear missiles and laserarmed satellites that would protect the US from attack.…read more

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USSR's economic weakness
How serious were the economic problems facing the Soviet economy, 19601985?
In 1990, Gorbachev told the Lithuanian Communist Party that "it is politics that follows economics and not vica
versa". It was the key economic weakness of the USSR and the Comecon states that was a key factor in the
collapse of communism and the disintegration of the USSR by 1991. Yet until 1960, the soviet economy had
performed relatively well.…read more

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He wanted to achieve international cooperation and real coexistence between the two systems whose
values would in time converge rather than conflict.
But he did as historian Jonathon Haslam has pointed out, "sought to improve the soviet system not destroy
He quickly indicated that he was determined to negotiate major reductions in nuclear weapons. Quite apart from
the economic benefits for the USSR, he also believed that it would show his willingness for détente, not knowing
Reagans willingness too.…read more

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Developments in Poland Hungary and Bulgaria, 19889
Issues: Poland's economy becoming increasingly indebted, Jarulzelski once again introduced price rises up to
200% in 1988, this coupled with other issues such as endemic corruption throughout the government and the
industries it controlled, led to a number of strikes throughout the county.
Action: This led the government to legalise Solidarity again and enter into negotiations with the group.…read more

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Gorbachev however
emphasised his wish for the dominant position of socialism in Hungary.
Result: In June, following Poland's example Round Table talks began between government and opposition groups
that agreed in elections to be held in March and April 1990. The Hungarian Socialist Workers Party renamed itself
the Hungarian Socialist Party (HSP) and attempted to transform itself into a western socialist party. However,
they won less then 11% of the vote and did not take part in the next government.…read more

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Hungary Opens its Border
On May 2nd 1989, Hungary began to dismantle barriers along its frontier with Austria, a neutral state. It did not
originally intend to allow citizens from other Warsaw Pacts to travel through it to Austria, but in July, thousands of
East Germans, who were allowed to visits Warsaw Pact countries without permits, travelled to Hungary hoping to
cross to Austria.…read more

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Krenz tried to appease with a proposal of permits for 30 days a year. On 9th November, a more
sweeping concession was made which granted all GDR's citizens with passports the right to an exit visa valid for
any boarder crossing including into west berlin. Initially this was supposed to take effect from the morning of the
10 November, but it was announced prematurely, and that night boarder guards facing crowds of 20,000 opened
up the crossing points through the wall and into west berlin.…read more


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