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The End of the Cold War
"New Cold war", 197685
A new period of competition between the Soviet and Western Black, including a renewed arms race, the soviet
invasion of Afghanistan and crisis in Eastern Europe. Détente ended by 1980, and tension was like that or 1960s

The weakening of…

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It was the geographical link between the soviet Union and the GDR through which any attack on the west
or from it would occur
It provided 1/3 of all eastern European armed forces in the Warsaw Pact
Largest population of any soviet bloc state other than USSR and was heavily…

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failed in its programme to modernise the economy and make it more competitive with western European

In August 1980, strikes erupted throughout the country when the government once again, without any
previous warning, announced major increases in the price of food. In Gdansk, 20,000 workers under the
leadership of…

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The rejection of the SALT 2 Treaty
The deployment of Missiles in Western Europe
Support for the mujahedeen in Afghanistan.

Yuri Andropov
In November 1982, Brezhnev died and was replaced by Andropov. In 1983, Reagan announced the Strategic
Defence initiative (SDI) also known as "star wars" which was meant to…

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USSR's economic weakness
How serious were the economic problems facing the Soviet economy, 19601985?

In 1990, Gorbachev told the Lithuanian Communist Party that "it is politics that follows economics and not vica
versa". It was the key economic weakness of the USSR and the Comecon states that was a key…

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He wanted to achieve international cooperation and real coexistence between the two systems whose
values would in time converge rather than conflict.
But he did as historian Jonathon Haslam has pointed out, "sought to improve the soviet system not destroy

He quickly indicated that he was determined to negotiate…

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Developments in Poland Hungary and Bulgaria, 19889


Issues: Poland's economy becoming increasingly indebted, Jarulzelski once again introduced price rises up to
200% in 1988, this coupled with other issues such as endemic corruption throughout the government and the
industries it controlled, led to a number of strikes throughout the…

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as they believed the communist party could win through public support rather than force. Gorbachev however
emphasised his wish for the dominant position of socialism in Hungary.

Result: In June, following Poland's example Round Table talks began between government and opposition groups
that agreed in elections to be held in…

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Hungary Opens its Border

On May 2nd 1989, Hungary began to dismantle barriers along its frontier with Austria, a neutral state. It did not
originally intend to allow citizens from other Warsaw Pacts to travel through it to Austria, but in July, thousands of
East Germans, who were allowed to…

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travel permits. Krenz tried to appease with a proposal of permits for 30 days a year. On 9th November, a more
sweeping concession was made which granted all GDR's citizens with passports the right to an exit visa valid for
any boarder crossing including into west berlin. Initially this was…


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