Theories of Perception 

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  • Theories of Perception
    • Gibson - Bottom Up
      • Optic Flow
        • Changes in the optic array due to movement. He believed movement was vital in perception and these changes give us info about position, direction and speed
        • First developed during WW2 when asked to prepare training films for pilots - realised how important optic flow was when landing a plane
      • Texture Gradient
        • Depth cues are very important particularly texture gradient. its a good indicator of distance - sudden changes in texture may signal a change in direction or a surface
      • Affordances
        • Believed perceptual system evolved to perceive directly the potential uses for objects as they have characteristics that perceive a use for. May not always be the use that is expected
      • Evaluation
        • Emphasises importance of movement therefore has more ecological validity
        • Believed perception has a firm biological basis e.g. Gibsons visual cliff study can be used to support Gibson as it shiows infants have depth perception at an early age
    • Gregory - Top Down
      • Muller - Lyer Illusion
        • Culture influences how we percieve it. we live in a carpented environment so therefore more susceptible tp fall for theillusion - environmental factors
      • Visual Illusions
        • He believed the brain creates a hypothesis to explain sensory data
        • They demonstrate how we can be mislead and draw wrong conclusions about what we saee
        • Could arise from tendency to perceive 3D objects from 2D drawings
      • Perceptual Set
        • A bias or readiness to pericene somethings rather than others
        • Brain pushed or set into perceiving things in a certain way due to factors - e.g. past experiences, context and motivation
        • Fits into Gregory's idea that perception is influenced by experience and guesswork
        • Palmer
          • Showed P's a familiar scene - kitchen. Then flashed objects on a screen either one related to scene e.g. loaf of bread or not related e.g. drum
          • Found that the loaf of bread was correctly identified 84% of the time and the drum less than 50% - this shows the influence of context in the perceptual set
      • Evaluation
        • Cataract paitents who had sight retained saw lines of muller lyer illusion the same - shows learning is needed to see the illusion
        • Children are more susceptible to see the muller lyer illusion than adults even though they've had less experience. shows perception may not be learned as children shouldn't see illusion as they haven't had enough experience in a carpentered environment
  • Gregory - Top Down
    • Muller - Lyer Illusion
      • Culture influences how we percieve it. we live in a carpented environment so therefore more susceptible tp fall for theillusion - environmental factors
    • Visual Illusions
      • He believed the brain creates a hypothesis to explain sensory data
      • They demonstrate how we can be mislead and draw wrong conclusions about what we saee
      • Could arise from tendency to perceive 3D objects from 2D drawings
    • Perceptual Set
      • A bias or readiness to pericene somethings rather than others
      • Brain pushed or set into perceiving things in a certain way due to factors - e.g. past experiences, context and motivation
      • Fits into Gregory's idea that perception is influenced by experience and guesswork
      • Palmer
        • Showed P's a familiar scene - kitchen. Then flashed objects on a screen either one related to scene e.g. loaf of bread or not related e.g. drum
        • Found that the loaf of bread was correctly identified 84% of the time and the drum less than 50% - this shows the influence of context in the perceptual set
    • Evaluation
      • Cataract paitents who had sight retained saw lines of muller lyer illusion the same - shows learning is needed to see the illusion
      • Children are more susceptible to see the muller lyer illusion than adults even though they've had less experience. shows perception may not be learned as children shouldn't see illusion as they haven't had enough experience in a carpentered environment

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