PERCEPTION - GREGORYS TOP-DOWN THEORY

PERCEPTION - GREGORYS TOP-DOWN THEORY

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  • Created by: Isabelle
  • Created on: 16-11-11 10:43

PERCEPTION - GREGORYS TOP-DOWN THEORY

WHAT DO TOP-DOWN PROCESSING THEORIES ASSUME?

WHAT ARE TOP-DOWN PROCESSING THEORIES SOMETIME REFFERED AS?

GREGORYS THEORY IS AN EXAMPLE OF A CONSTRUCTOVIST APPROACH, WHAT DOES THIS MEAN?

WHAT IS GREGORY'S THEORY INDIRECT?

WHAT ARE THE 3 MAIN ASSUMPTIONS ALL CONSTRUCTIVISTS SHARE?

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PERCEPTION - GREGORYS TOP-DOWN THEORY

WE CAN ONLY PERCEIVE OUR WORLD ACCURATELY IF WE USE STORED KNOWLEDGE AND PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS TO INTERPRET RAW SENSORY DATA FROM THE ENVIRONMENT

CONCEPT-DRIVEN PROCESSING BECAUSE PRIOR KNOWLEDGE DRIVES PERCEPTUAL PROCESS

APPROACH BELIEVES WE COMBINE A NUMBER OF DIFFERENT FACTORS IN ORDER TO CONSTRUCT OUR FINAL PERCEPTION - RELIES ON INFERENCE - WE APPROACH PERCEPTION AS A PROBLEM SOLVING TASK

INFORMATION HAS TO BE PROCESSED AT A HIGH COGNITIVE LEVEL BEYOND BASIC SENSORY REGISTRATION (GIBSON) TO PERCEIVE ACCURATELY = INTELLIGENT PERCEPTION

1) PERCEPTION IS AN ACTIVE, CONSTRUCTIVE PROCESS THAT GOES BEYOND DIRECT REGISTRATION OF SENSES, 2) PERCEPTION IS AN END PRODUCT OF THE INTERACTIVE INFLUENCES OF THE STIMULUS COMBINED WITH INTERNAL HYPOTHESIS (EXPECTAIONS AND STORED KNOWLEDGE), 3) PERCEPTION CAN BE PRONE TO ERRORS (ILLUSIONS)

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PERCEPTION - GREGORYS TOP-DOWN THEORY

WHATS MEANT BY HYPOTHESIS TESTING?

HOW DOES GREGORYS THEORY EXPLAIN VISUAL ILLUSIONS?

EXPAIN THE NECKER CUBE...

EXPLAIN SIXE CONSISTANCY IN TERMS OF VISUAL ILLUSIONS...

EXPLAIN THE MULLER-LYER ILLUSION...

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PERCEPTION - GREGORYS TOP-DOWN THEORY

PERCEPTION REQUIRES A DYNAMIC SEARCH FOR THE BEST POSSIBLE INTERPRETATION OF THE AVAILABLE DATA

THEORY MEANS WE CAN FORMUALTE THE WRONG HYPOTHESIS AND MAKE PERCEPTUAL ERRORS

TYPE OF ILLUSION CALLED AN AMBIGUIOUS FIGURE, WHERE THE SAME PHYSICAL STIMULUS RESULTS IN TWO DIFFERENT BUT EQUALLY LIKELY PERCEPTIONS, THEREFORE THE BRAIN FLIPS BETWEEN THE TWO HYPOTHESIS

MEANS OUR ABILITY TO SEE OBJECTS MORE/LESS THE SAME SIZE REGARDLESS OF OUR OWN DITANCE FROM THEM - WAY OF MAINTAINING A STABLE VISUAL WORLD - IN SOME CIRCUMSTANCES WE MISAPPLY THE RULE AND SO MISINTERPRET THE VISUAL STIMULUS

GREGORY EXPLAINED THE ILLUSION IN TERMS OF MISSAPPLIED CONSISTANCY SCALING - THE ILLUSION IS AN AUTOMATIC PROCESS RESULTING FROM OUR WELL LEARNED EXPERIENCE OF TRANSLATING 2D IMAGES INTO 3D OBJECTS - LIVE IN A CARPENTERED ENVIRONMENT

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PERCEPTION - GREGORYS TOP-DOWN THEORY

WHAT EVIDENCE IS THEIR TO SUPPORT THE IDEA WE MAKE USE OF STORED KNOWLEDGE AND PAST EXPERIENCES TO GUIDE OUR PERCEPTUAL PROCESS?

HOW HAS GREGORY OVER EMPHAISED PERCEPTUAL ERRORS?

INDIRECT THEORIES

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PERCEPTION - GREGORYS TOP-DOWN THEORY

DINER - FOUND THE LETTER 'P' IN THE 2ND WORD IS PERCIEVED AS A CAPITAL AND BIGGER THAN THE 'P' IN THE 1ST WORD WHICH IS PERCIEVDED AS SMALLER AND IN THE LOWER CASE, YET THE 'P' ARE IDENTICAL, ARE EXPECTATIONS BASED ON KNOWELDGE ABOUT RELATIVE PROPORTIONS OF UPPER AND LOWER CASE LETTERS HAVE DISTORTED OUR PERCEPTION

IN THE REAL WORLD PERCEPTION IS REMARKABLE ACCURATE (GIBSON) - IF PERCEPTION RELIED TOTALLY ON HYPOTHESIS TESTING WE MIGHT EXPECT TO MAKE MORE PERCEPTUAL ERRORS

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