Theories of Attachment

View mindmap
  • Theories of Attachment
    • Bowlby's theory of attachment
      • Infants are biologically pre-programmed to form attachments
        • Infancy is a critical period for developing attachments
        • In their early months, infants form one primary attachments
        • Attachment to the primary caregiver is essential
        • A disruption to attachment has a negative impact on development
          • Disrupted attachments may cause:
            • Anxiety
            • Difficulty in forming relationships
            • Depressive disorders
            • Delinquency
            • Learning disorders
        • Attachment to the primary caregiver is a model for future attachments
    • Ainsworth's strange situation classification (SSC)
      • Mary Ainsworth classified attachments into three main types, based on a study of children's reaction when separated from parent
        • Secure
          • Infant's behaviour
            • Will show distress when PCG leaves, and greets them when they return; seeks comfort from CG when upset; happy with stranger when CG is present
          • Parenting style
            • In tune with the child and their emotions
        • Insecure / avoidant
          • Parenting style
            • Unavailable to child / rejects them
          • Infant's behaviour
            • Does not show distress when PCG leaves; continues to explore the environment; may go to a stranger for comfort
        • Insecure / resistant
          • Parenting style
            • Inconsistent in meeting the child's needs
          • Infant's behaviour
            • Shows distress when PGC leaves but resists contact on their return; shows anxiety and insecurity
    • Schaffer and Emerson's stages of attachment
      • Birth to 3 months
        • Responds to any caregiver
      • 4-7 months
        • Shows preference for primary care giver but accepts care from others
      • 7-9 months
        • Prefers primary caregiver and seeks comfort from them; unhappy when separated and shows fear of strangers
      • 10 months +
        • Begins to develop attachments with others who respond to them. By 18 months most infants have formed multiple attachments


No comments have yet been made

Similar Health & Social Care resources:

See all Health & Social Care resources »See all Theories of Attachment resources »