The Respiratory System: Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

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  • The Respiratory System
    • How we breathe
      • Inhale
        • Diaphragm contracts descends and flattens out the rib cage floor
        • Intercostal muscles contract and pull the ribs upwards
        • Lungs increase in size decreasing the pressure
        • Higher external atmospheric pressure pushes air into our lungs
      • Exhale
        • The diaphragm relaxes and is pushed back into domed position
        • The intercostal muscles relax and the ribs down under own weight
        • Space in lungs is now smaller
        • Pressure inside lungs increases
    • The respiratory system and excercise
      • When we exercise, more oxygen is needed by working muscles and more carbon dioxide must be removed from muscles
        • Results of this
          • Rate of breathing increases
          • Increased depth of breathing
            • Up to vital capacity
          • Increased blood flow through the lungs
          • Increase oxygen taken up and used by body
    • How oxygen gets to working muscles
      • 1. Air we breathe in passes into tiny sacs in the lungs called alveoli
        • Haemoglobin in blood from capillaries takes up oxygen from alveoli
          • Transport it through pulmonary vein to LEFT SIDE OF HEART
            • Oxygenated Side
      • 2. Oxygenated blood id then pumped through aorta to body tissues
        • Oxygen is carried within red blood cells
      • 3. When blood arrives in capliiaries at tissues, it gives up oxygen and nutrients e.g. glucose
        • It picks up waster products of carbon dioxide and water
      • 4. Within body cells, oxygen is used to release the energy from glucose
        • This process is called cell respiration
          • Right side of heart
            • Deoxygenated
      • 5. Carbon dioxide must be removed from body
        • Carried to heart then lungs
          • Here it is released into alveoli and breathed out of body
      • 7. Not all the carbon dioxide is removed
        • Its presence in bloodstream is checked by the brain
          • The amount of carbon dioxide in blood is then used to control rate of breathing
      • 8. Air we breathe in
        • 79% Nirtogen
        • 21% Oxygen
        • 0.04% Carbon Dioxide
        • Air we breathe out
          • 79% Nitrogen
          • 16% Oxygen
          • 4% Carbon Dioxide
    • Lung Capacity
      • Tidal Volume
        • Amount of air breathed in and out during normal breathing
          • When resting, about 500ml of air moves in and out of the lungs per breath
      • Residual volume
        • Total lung capacity =vital capacity + residual volume
      • Vital Capacity
        • Largest amount of air that can be forced out of lungs after taking in as much air as we can in 1 breath
          • Air left behind is residual volume
    • Aerobic respiration
      • Heart and lungs work to supply the muscles with oxygen
        • Moderate to hard continuous activities
      • Glucose + Oxygen = Energy + Carbon Dioxide + Water
    • Anaerobic respiration
      • Muscles not supplied with oxygen
        • Glucose (No oxygen) = Energy + Lactic Acid
      • Demand for oxygen is so great that the CV system doesn't have enough time to supply the demand
        • When and athlete stops after a sprint, the continue to breathe more heavily to take in extra oxygen
          • Oxygen debt
          • This is in order to break down lactic acid which makes muscles feel tired.

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