GCSE AQA PE Unit2 part2

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  • Physical and mental demands of performance
    • The circulatory system
      • The heart
        • The heart is basically a very efficient pump.
        • Like any other muscle it contracts and relaxes.
        • The heart rate will increase with exercise as the heart rate is called upon to supply more oxygen to the working muscles.
      • Functions of the circulatory system
        • The blood carries the oxygen, water and nutrients
        • Protection is provided when antibodies that fight infection are carried in the blood
        • Body temperature is regulated as the blood absorbs body heat and carries it to the lungs and skin where it is released
      • Blood vessels
        • They allow the blood to flow
          • Veins
            • these carry the deoxygenated blood back into the heart.
              • they have thinner walls than arteries, which are less elastic
                • Have valves to make sure the blood does not flow backwards
          • Arteries
            • These have thick walls and carry the oxygenated blood at high pressure away from the heart through the aorta.
              • They do not have any valves and have quite elastic walls
                • Your pulse can be located in arteries
          • Caplillaries
            • microscopic vessels that link the arteries to the veins and are very thin to allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to pass through their walls
    • The respiratory system
      • Aerobic
        • The action of Breathing
          • In
            • This serves to reduce the chest cavity and causes air to be sucked into the lungs. 
            • The air we are actually breathing in is high in oxygen and nitrogen but low in carbon dioxide.
            • As this is happening, the intercostal muscles raise the ribs up and push out the sternum, which makes the chest cavity larger. 
            • When we breathe in, the chest cavity changes shape and size- the diaphragm changes from a dome shape as it flattens and moves downwards.
          • Out
            • When we breathe out the reverse process occurs but the air breathed out is high in nitrogen and carbon dioxide.
        • Breathing Rate
          • Breathing rate increases greatly when we exercise.
        • Aerobic respiration
          • respiration that occurs in the presence of oxygen
            • Glucose + Oxygen -> energy + carbon dioxide + water
              • This type of respiration is used when the body continues an activity for a long period of time and the energy to do so is produced using oxygen.
      • Anaerobic
        • The recovery period
          • Straight after any vigorous exercise we have to take in extra oxygen, which helps to convert the possibly painful presence of lactic acid into simple waste products that have to be removed from the body
            • Perspiration
            • Expiration of breath
            • Excretion through urine and faeces
        • Oxygen debt
          • This is what happens as a result of the muscles respiring anaerobically during vigorous exercise because as our bodies run out of sufficient supplies of oxygen we call on glycogen stores in the body as an alternative energy supply.
        • Role of blood
          • As well as controlling body temperature, one of the most basic roles of the blood is as a transporter and it is through this function that the oxygen, glucose and waste products are all transported around the body.
        • Anaerobic respiration
          • anaerobic respiration occurs in the absence of oxygen
            • Glucose -> energy -> lactic acid
              • This type of respiration occurs when the body works without sufficient oxygen being supplied to the muscles
    • The cardiovascular system
      • Improving cardiovascular endurance
        • Aim to work within the aerobic zone
          • You are breathing aerobically and the the training zone for at least 15 minutes
        • MHR= 220-your age
      • Cardiovascular endurance
        • when you take part in sustained activity you will notice these effects
          • Increase in your heart rate (pulse)
          • Increase in your blood pressure
          • Increase in breathing rate
      • Testing your cardiovascular endurance
        • Pulse recovery rate
          • the quicker this returns to the normal, resting rate, the higher your endurance levels are
        • Resting pulse rate
          • general indicator, as the lower this is the better your endurance is
  • microscopic vessels that link the arteries to the veins and are very thin to allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to pass through their walls

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