Philosophy- Core- Meaning of Life

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  • The Meaning of Life
    • Nihilism
      • nihil- 'nothing'
        • rejects the ideas of moral values and religious as well as the idea that there is any ultimate purpose or meaning to life
        • Life is meaningless and without purpose
      • views scientific truth as the only truth
      • we are products of random variation and natural selection
    • Nietzsche
      • Nihilism
        • nihil- 'nothing'
          • rejects the ideas of moral values and religious as well as the idea that there is any ultimate purpose or meaning to life
          • Life is meaningless and without purpose
        • views scientific truth as the only truth
        • we are products of random variation and natural selection
      • recognised feelings and personal values- encouraged people to create their own purposes
        • Our goal in life is power- we want to be happy and express our abilities and potential
          • we have meaning to life by achieving our goals
            • but there is no overall purpose
      • The only meaning to life is the one we give it
        • Moral facts are simply opinions and interpretations
        • if something has value to us it is improtant to achieve it
        • We do not need God or society to give our lives meaning
        • we have intrinsic value
      • Believed the vast majority of people are weak and need guidance, e.g. religion
      • 'Bad traits' help us to develop
        • We learn from religion, i.e christianity, to bring down the strong and that life is worthless
    • Absurdism
      • Kierkegaard
        • 3 modes of existence
          • 1) Aesthetic- most people dedicate themselves to seeking pleasure
          • 2) Ethical-accepts there is something greater and dedicates themselves to it and moral obligations
          • 3) Religion- Personal relationship with God. Faith is your dedication to something great and universal which may not be real. 'Leap of faith'
      • There is no objective meaning to life but humans 'require' one
      • We live in a nihilistic world. There is no meaining or value but we are rational and want to give reasons when realistically there are none. Therefore, life is absurd for us
      • Camus
        • We are here without reason or purpose in the blank, indifferent 'silence of the universe', but are programmed to look for it
        • We try to justify our actions but there is no justification
        • We are aware that we are meaningless creatures and the absurdity of our existence
        • We have a 3 choices
          • 1) suicide- does not solve the problem
          • 2) Leap of faith- 'philosophical suicide' since God is a lie. Faith annihilates reason
          • 3) Acceptance of life's absurdity- embrace our condition is the only option.if we realise the world is devoid of absolutes we become truly free to create our own meaning and purpose
        • Myth of Sisyphus- his task gives him meaining and dignity even though his life has no purpose
    • Pre-Modernity
      • Each human is part of something greater- a system ordained by God
        • God & his Angels> . Monarch> Church> Humans> Animals
      • We have an objective God given meaning
        • We are creatures created by God for a reason which gives us a sense of purpose
          • Islam- to serve Allah, and life is a test
          • Christianity- to love God and find redemption through Jesus
          • Buddhism- to release ourselves from craving and the constant cycle of rebirth we experience to reach nirvana
          • For the followers of these religions, these meanings apply to us all
        • Based on fulfilling your status- your purpose is to act as requires to in your position within the social hierarchy where God created us

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