The mass media and audiences

  • Created by: rianna
  • Created on: 18-12-12 18:29
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  • The mass media and audiences
    • Hypodermic syringe model
      • The earliest and simplest perspective, portrays media as all powerful and controlling
      • media injects audience with a message through adverts
      • Links to traditional Marxist perspectives sayings audiences minds are consciously manipulated
      • audience is seen as passive,   homogeneous- all the same and as blank pages
      • Model has been tested through Banduras bobo doll violent media content can lead to copycat violence
      • Newson investigated effects of violent media on young people  Argued the drip drip effect of prolonged exposure to violence
      • Catharsis- Fesbach and sanger, screen violence can provide a safe outlet for people  aggressive  tendencies
      • Sensitisation - seeing the effects of violence might make us more sensitive to its consequences
      • Methodology - a lot of studies  that look at violence are based on lab experiments
      • children are more media literate now than in the past Buckingham children can tell the difference between fictional and real violence
      • Audiences are not all the same the audience may have a more active relationship with the media
      • Uses media as a scapegoat blaming the media for society's ills. Other social and psychological factors affect behaviour
    • Two step flow  model
      • Katz and Lazersfeld media message is a social process
      • Message is passed from media to opinion leaders and then to general audience
      • Media audiences are not  directly affected by the media they choose a particular opinion
      • The opinion leader may themselves have been subject to an initiative or desensitising effect
      • Not everyone has access to an opinion leader and may be more vulnerable to hypodermic syringe model
    • Selective filter model
      • Klapper for media messages to have any effect they must pass through 3 filters
      • Selective exposure- audience choose own media influenced by their education interests and work
      • Selective perception- audience may not accept the message some only seek information that agrees with their existing beliefs
      • Selective retention- most people only remember the information they broadly agree with
    • Uses and gratifications model
      • Blumer & McQuail- People take what they want  from the mass media, andi it satisfies social needs
      • 4 basic needs which people use TV to satisfy Diversion Personal relationships personal identity and surveillance
      • Lull identifies 5 family uses of TV relational affiliation avoidance social learning  competence dominance
      • Katz  Model is an interpretive model derives from the pluralist  perspective audience has influence on media content
      • Marxists criticise this model as they suggests needs are socially manufactured by the media
      • Media presents  consumption and materialism needs that must be met- which  represent  capitalist ideology -Marcuse false needs
    • Cultural effects model
      • Media is a powerful influence but people interpret things in different ways
      • Ruling class ideas are constantly transmitted people accept ruling class ideology as right and proper
      • Indictates  process of indoctrination is subtle and may take place over a long period of time drip drip effect
      • accepts that audiences interpret media messages in different ways but in confined limits
      • Glasgow university media group- issues in the news favour the powerful, and images of them are biased
      • Sees the audience as cultural dopes  unable to work the ideological bias in the medai
      • Pluralists argue that journalism can be objective not all media content is ideologically controlled
    • Reception analysis model
      • Media content differs according to class,age,gender, ethnic group and other sources of identity
      • audience act  in a variety of sub cultural ways
      • People choose to make on of three interpretations
      • Preferred dominant reading- based on consensus, also very likely to be shared by journalists and editors and is likely to underpin news values
      • Oppositional reading- a minority may oppose the views expressed in media content
      • Negotiated reading- the audience may interpret media content to fit in with their own opinions and values
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wow this is great, i needed some last minute revision on mass media and audience and this has just wowed me. thanks for the upload



Thank you sooo much! This is a great mindmap of mass media and the audience.



Thanks for this! 

Brittany - Team GR


This is a brilliant resource! 

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