Mass Media Effect Models

8 models that suggest how the media shapes the behaviour of an audience

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  • Created by: Rob95
  • Created on: 20-04-14 16:45
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  • Mass Media Effect Models
    • Hyperdermic Syringe
      • The audience passively and directly accept the norms and values of the messages that the media transmit
      • Link to crime e.g Grand Theft Auto
      • Bandura
        • Bobo doll
          • Lab Experiment
      • Criticisms
        • Lack of (ethical) evidence.
        • Too deterministic
        • Could be due to role models / copy cat behaviour
    • Use and Gratifications
      • McQual and Lull
        • Leisure, relaxation, entertain, escape.
          • Background wallpaper e.g music
        • Facilitates Social Capital
          • Media has an integrating function
          • Conversation starter
          • Share information
          • Ryan - Virtual campfire
      • Argues that people use the media for different things
        • Humans are not passive or easily manipulated
    • Two-Step Flow
      • Katz and Lazerfield
      • Criticisms
        • Dependant on the social conformity of the opinion leader
        • Dependant on the social influence of the opinion leader
        • What makes an opinion leader?
      • Argues that messages flow from the media to opinion leaders who in turn redistribute the messages
        • The media has a limited and indirect effect
        • Reconises that audience are not a homogenous mass and that they can reject undesired messages
    • Cultural Effects
      • The idea that ideology is dripped over a period  of time.
        • Due to continuous exposure, behaviours and ideologies are gradually shaped to reflect the media consumed
      • The preferred reading
        • A particular way that events are interpretated and articulated via the media
          • Those lacking direct experience are more likely to accept the preferred reading
            • Those who have the direct experience are more likely to reject the preferred reading
          • Philo - GUMG - The Miner's Strikes 1984
      • Criticisms
        • Difficult to evalute the effect / validity as it is happening over time
        • Fails to acknowledge journalist choice and activeness
        • Audience as fundamentaly passive
    • Structured Interpretation
      • Audiences will interpret the media messages based on  their social position
        • Morley
          • Dominant Response
          • Oppositional Response
          • Negotiated Response
    • Selective Filter
      • Klapper
    • New Media
      • Liveset and Lawson
        • Involves audience input hence the audience ARE the media
    • P.Modernists
      • Generalisations of media effects are impossible
      • Baudrillard
        • Hyper-reality
          • Any arguemtns about media effects becomes  redundants as the media IS reality, therefore the media cannot shape or distort an audiences' perception
  • Argues that messages flow from the media to opinion leaders who in turn redistribute the messages
    • The media has a limited and indirect effect
    • Reconises that audience are not a homogenous mass and that they can reject undesired messages
  • Criticisms
    • Difficult to evalute the effect / validity as it is happening over time
    • Fails to acknowledge journalist choice and activeness
    • Audience as fundamentaly passive

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