The Failure of Attempts to Reach a Settlement, 1646-1649 Part 2

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  • The Failure of Attempts to Reach a Settlement, 1646-1649 (Mindmap 2)
    • The Engagement, December 1647
      • Charles had a strong belief in the divine right and would be reluctant to surrender control of religious belief and control of the militia
      • The king escaped in November 1647. It was timely from the point of view of the Grandees
        • His greater freedom and easier access to France or other foreign help raised the possibility of renewed war
        • He escaped from army custody at Hampton Court and made his way to the Isle of Wight
      • Charles signed the agreement with the Scots. It stated that Presbyterianism would be allowed for three years in England, in return for a Scottish invasion to return him to power
        • This united the New Model ranks as they faced military threat from Charles
      • At the end of December, Charles rejected the Four Bills, an amalgamation of the Newcastle Propositions and the Heads of the Proposals
    • The Vote of No Addresses, January 1648
      • When Parliament, reacting to the king's engagement with the Scots, passed a vote of no further addresses to the king, it meant that there would be no further negotiations with Charles
      • In response to the Vote, outraged gentry organised local petitions calling for a treaty with the king and the disbandment of the army
        • In the spring of 1648, these local resentments led to disturbances in London and Norwich and outright rebellion in Kent and Essex and in sections of the navy
    • Windsor Prayer Meeting, April 1648
      • The New Model gathered at Windsor to pray before meeting their enemies
      • They declared Charles as a 'man of blood'
      • Here, the army articulated regicide in public for the first time
    • The Second Civil War, 1647-8
      • Military Significance
        • There was a desire for a return to normal and familiar forms of government
          • The parliamentary ordinance against the celebration of Christmas in 1647 led to riots
            • Parliamentarian supporters who led these outbreaks were seeking to influence the decisions of parliament but were easily dealt with by the army
        • Royalists had a desire to return to familiar forms of government too
          • They had cavalier risings in Cornwall, Yorkshire and Wales
        • Charles had support from the Scottish army who entered England in July
          • They had een slow to raise forces and were hampered by quarrels between the nobility and the kirk
            • The Scottish army struggled in the English weather
              • They were caught at Preston by Cromwell
      • Political Significance
        • The conservative case for a compromise peace was enormously strengthened while on the other hand the army became adamantly opposed to any such treaty
          • Although rebellions had been ill-coordinated and ineffective, the widespread unrest revealed popular dislike for parliament's attempts to reform religion
        • The House of Commons responded by repealing the Vote of No Addresses
          • This re-opened negotiations with the king
            • Those 11 MPs who had been impeached retook their seats
        • Commissioners were sent to the Isle of Wight to meet the king
        • When the army had done its work for parliament's safety, there was every prospect that its interests would be sacrificed in a new treaty between the parliamentary majority and the king
          • In 1647 reservations regarding the king's reliability in any settlement had been made public and the army declared its right to a voice in any political settlement
    • The Remonstrance, November 1648
      • Because of Charles's secrecy and willingness to see a new war, the army and a minority of MPs argued that it was pointless to negotiate as he could not be trusted
        • They claimed he had forfeited his right to be God's anointed after his first defeat at parliament's hands
      • The position of the army was more formally outlined by Ireton in November 1648 in the Remonstrance of the army
        • It demanded that parliament put Charles on trial
          • If parliament refused to do this, the remonstrance called for a purge of parliament and then the king's trial
    • The Newport Treaty Negotiations, 1648
      • The army was given little opportunity to debate. While its remonstrances were ignored, the parliamentary majority pushed ahead with the proposed treaty with the king
      • In early December the commissioners returned from the Isle of Wight with the king's answer to the four bills
        • He rejected proposals regarding the church, but made concessions over the militia
      • 129 MPs voted to continue the Newport Treaty with Charles
    • Pride's Purge, December 1648
      • Army Acted
        • Ireton wished to dissolve the House of Commons and hold new elections on a reformed franchise
          • He was dissuaded by the radical MPs to use the army in negotiations with Charles. A military intervention would be unpopular
            • It was decided to purge the present parliament and leave the settlement in the hands of the minority left
              • 45 MPs from the long parliament were imprisoned for supporting the Newport Negotiations
              • It is estimated that 210 MPs were left as the rump parliament after the purge
      • The Purge
        • On 6 December parliamentary buildings were surrounded by troops under Colonel Pride
      • Motivation of Supporters of the Trial
        • The imprisoned MPs that supported negotiations were of a higher social status and more wealthy than those in favour of execution
      • Cromwell
        • He wanted to sort things with Charles but this was made difficult by Charles's belief in the divine right
        • He pushed for public trial
          • This may have been interpreted as a sign from God
        • Some MPs were in favour of republicanism and to abolish the monarchy
    • The Trial and Execution of Charles I, January 1649
      • The Rump agreed to establish a High Court to try the king
      • He was declared guilty and was sentenced to die
      • Out of 135 commissioners, 59 became regicides by signing the death warrant of Charles

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