MEMORY - The Multi-Store Model (MSM)

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  • The Multi-Store Model (MSM)
    • Definitions
      • MSM: an explanation of memory that see info flowing through a series of storage systems
      • SENSORY REGISTER (SR) - a short-duration store holding impressions of info received by the senses
      • SHORT-TERM MEMORY (STM) - a temporary holding store holding small amounts of info for long periods of time
      • LONG-TERM MEMORY (LTM) - a permanent store holding limitless amounts of info for long periods of time
      • CODING - the means by which info is represented in memory
      • CAPACITY - the amount of info that can be stored in memory
      • DURATION - the length of time info remains within storage
      • CHUNKING - method to increase capacity in STM by grouping info into large units
    • Sensory Register
      • CODING
        • info stored in raw. unprocessed form
        • separate sensory stores for each of the senses
        • info that is paid attention to passes to STM. Remainder fades quickly, leaving no lasting impression
        • CROWDER ('93) - info is retained in iconic store for few milliseconds 2-3 secs in echoic store. Supports ides of separated coding and duration for different sensory info
        • sensory memory may consist of sub-stores eg. visual persistence and info persistence within iconic store
      • CAPACITY
        • very large as all info is in unprocessed, highly detailed and ever-changing format
        • SPERLING ('60) - 3x4 grid of letters on screen for 1/20th of a sec. Different tones (high, med or low) for each line to recall. Recall of rows = high. Suggests all info was there - capacity of SR = huge
        • calculating capacity involves PPs evaluating cues -> suggests change in random wave patterns. These only provide estimates and are highly artificial. Lack mundane realism
        • evidence that iconic store can hold 15-20 images. Other stores not well studied - so brief and occur at pre-conscious level
      • DURATION
        • limited duration
        • duration of each store = not consistent
        • duration decreases with age
        • WALSH & THOMPSON ('78) - iconic sensory store has average of 500 milliseconds, decreases as individs get older
        • evolutionary perspective: people need to focus on perceptual info with survival value
    • STM
      • CODING
        • info arrives from SR in raw form and encoded in easier form in STM (visually, acoustically, semantically)
        • See BADDELEY ('66) research
        • research shows encoding in STM is mainly acoustic, but other stores (visual) are used too
      • CAPACITY
        • limited capacity (5-9 items)
        • can be increased by chunking eg. SOSABCITV into SOS/ABC/ITV
        • JACOBS (1887) - serial digit span method. PPs must recall increasingly bigger lists of numbers (eg. 8, 3, 6, 4) in right order. When they fail 50% of time = capacity reached. Total cap for numbers = 9, letter = 7. Recalling lists - lack mundane realism
        • other factors (age & practice) influence STM capacity
        • limitations of STM mostly seen as due to limitations during processing associated with attention
      • DURATION
        • max of 30 secs
        • can be improved with rehearsal. If done long enough - will go into LTM and be more long-lasting
        • PETERSON & PETERSON ('59) - nonsense trigrams (ZFG). PPs counted back in 3s from 100 and recalled non.tri. 90% recalled correctly after 3 secs, 5% after 18 secs. STM duration around 20-30 secs.
          • BUT different trigrams on each round may have led to interference between tasks
        • brief duration may be due to displacement - new info comes into STM and pushes out existing info due to limited cap
        • little research evidence considering the STM duration of other forms of stimuli (visual images)
    • LTM
      • CODING
        • coding of info will be stronger (memory = more retrievable)
        • verbal info -> mainly semantic but other stores are also present
        • NELSON & ROTHBART ('72) - PPs made errors when recalling homophones (night and knight). Suggests LTM has several varieties
        • smells and tastes can't be coded semantically and song are encoded acoustically = different stores in LTM
        • diff types of LTM involve diff brain areas - encoded in different ways in LTM
      • CAPACITY
        • unlimited. Info may be lost due to interference and decay, but not lack of capacity
        • WAGENAAR ('86) - created diary of 2,400 and tested himself on events instead of dates. His recall was very good -> suggests large cap for LTM
        • assumed to be limitless -> research can't determine a finite cap
        • evolutionary basis to LTM: FAGOT & COOK - pigeons can hold 1,200 picture response associations. Baboons hadn't reached cap after 3 yrs training, memorising 5,000 associations. Survival value -> natural selection
      • DURATION
        • depends on individs lifespan
        • the better coded info is, the longer the duration
        • longer duration for skills over facts
        • BAHRICK ('75) - 400 PPs 17-74 had set of names and photos of ex-school friends. Those who'd left school 15 yrs prior identified 90% of faces & names. Those left 48 yrs prior identified 80% of names and 70% of faces.
        • info never lost in LTM, it is just a problem of access
        • testing techniques may effect findings. Recognition of stimuli is better than free recall
  • Research
  • Evaluation (A03)
  • General info

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