The mass media and audiences

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  • The Mass Media and Audiences
    • Hypodermic Syringe Model
      • The media can 'inject' their messages into the audience, who accept them uncritically.
      • Bandura et al (1963) experiment.
        • Children were shown a video of a women beating up a bobo doll. After were sent to a room containing a bobo doll and  started attacking it.
        • Bandura concluded that violent media content could lead to 'copycat violence'.
      • Elizabeth Newson
        • Noted that children and teenagers are subjected to a lot of violence through the media.
          • Prolonged exposure to media violence may have a 'drip'drop' efect
      • Morgan (1980)
        • "Pornography is the theory, rape is the practice."
      • Dworkin (1990)
        • Pornography trivializes rape and makes men violent.
      • Criticism
        • Catharsis
        • Sensitization
        • Audiences are not homogenous
    • The two-step flow model
      • Katz and Lazarsfeld (1965)
        • Social networks are usually dominated by 'opinion leaders'.
      • Step one: The opinion leader is exposed to the media content.
      • Step two: Those who respect the opinion leader internalize their interpretation of that content.
      • Criticisms
        • There is not guarantee that the opinion leader has not been subjected to a desensitizing effect.
    • Selective filter model
      • Klapper (1960)
        • Selective exposure
          • The audience must choose to view, read or listen to the content of specific media.
        • Selective perception
          • The audience may not accept the message the media is trying to 'inject'.
        • Selective retention
          • People have a tendency to remember only the things which they agree to.
    • Uses and gratification model
      • McQuail and Lull
        • People use the media in order to satisfy their needs.
          • Marxists criticise the model because they suggest that needs may be socially manufactured by the media.
    • Reception analysis model
      • People interpret media content in different ways according to their class, age, gender ethnic group, etc.
      • Preferred reading
      • Oppositional reading
      • Negotiated reading
    • Cultural effects model
      • Marxists believe that the media are powerful in 'injecting' ideological values into people.
      • The GUMG's research into public perceptions of the miners' strike.
      • Criticisms
        • 'Cause' and 'effects' are very hard to measure.

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