Russia 1855-1964 Revolutions

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  • The 1917 Revolutions
    • February 1917 revolution
      • Deteriorated social and economic conditions following WWI intensified criticism of Tsar
      • Strikes and protests led to workers being fired on by troops
      • Half the Petrograd Garrison joined the protestors, a Petrograd Soviet formed to rule alongside Provisional Duma Committee
      • N II had little choice but to abdicate on 2nd March 1917
      • Official Provisonal Government formed until the constituent assembly could be established
    • October 1917 Revolution
      • Throughout the summer members of the Soviet grew increasingly frustrated with the prov gov
      • Main grievances were economic issues and continued involvement in the war
      • Bolsheviks had majority in Soviet and seized power from prov gov
    • The impact of the revolutions on the government of the Russian Empire
      • Autocratic rule replaced by prov gov + liberalism, replaced by communist utopia- never achieved, totalitarian similar to Tsars
      • Members of prov gov arrested w Bolshevik takeover, the 'old guard' replaced by new political figures
      • Oct rev was a 'Petrograd revolution', soviets set up elsewhere to gain support, faced opposition from supporters of the old regime
      • The Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets (oct 1917) have Bolsheviks mandate to rule  if govt truely soviet based, most of congress happy with Bolshevik takeover
      • Right wing SRs and Mensheviks not happy, walked out of Soviets- beginning Bolshevik monopoly in power
      • Bolsheviks allowed elections to constituent assembly, came 2nd to SRs, Lenin shut it down claiming it was 'old regime', opposition from non-Bolsheviks
      • Jan 1918- Third All-Russian Congress of Soviets proclaimed establishment of the Russian Soviet Federalist Republic, new political structure w sovnarkom at centre
      • Although members of sovnarkom were products of chain of elections, system dominated by Bolsheviks, Russia resembled a one-party-state

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