Opposition to Regimes in Russia 1855-1964 

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  • Created by: Clare
  • Created on: 13-05-13 17:34
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  • Opposition to Regimes in Russia 1855-1964
    • Political Groups
      • Populists
        • 'The People's Will'
          • Assassinated Alexander II in 1881
          • Inspired  future revolutionaries
            • Bolsheviks
              • Gained popularity in Nicholas II and Provisional Government'srule
              • September 1917: The Petrograd Soviet was completely dominated by the Bolshevik party
        • Formed 'Land and Liberty movement which attempted to politically educate peasants
          • 'The People's Will'
            • Assassinated Alexander II in 1881
            • Inspired  future revolutionaries
              • Bolsheviks
                • Gained popularity in Nicholas II and Provisional Government'srule
                • September 1917: The Petrograd Soviet was completely dominated by the Bolshevik party
      • Social Revolutionaries
        • Biggest threat up until    October Revolution
        • Gained majority in constituent assembly elections with 370 seats but  was ended by Lenin as he claimed the elections had been rigged.
      • Social Democrats
      • Liberals
        • Kadets
          • Under Nicholas II, more radical liberal movement
        • Octobrists
          • Accepted October manifesto
    • Peasantry
      • Formed 70-80% of the population of Russia at any given point during the period
      • 1861 emancipation edict unleashed a number of disturbance involving 10 000 peasants
      • Black Earth Region Revolts
        • Stolypin used a great deal of force to put them down
        • Lead to land reforms
        • Essential part of 1917 revolution
      • Opposition to collectivisation
        • March 1930: Stalin conceded that collective farms would be optional
          • However, by 1939 Stalin had forced 90% of agricultural land to be collectivised
            • Many peasants refused to be involved and slaughtered cattle and horses rather than hand them over
      • Opposition to war communism led to revolts at Tambov and Volga and forced Lenin to bring in NEP
    • Urban Workers
      • February Revolution 1917 started as a march for International Women's Day
      • Lena Goldfields Massacre 1912
      • St Petersburg strikes 1914
      • Increased opposition in the Khrushchev years
        • Responded with appeasing policies such as a 7hr day and inspections of working conditions
      • Heavily repressed under Stalin
        • Worker Trials of 1928
    • National  Minorities
      • Poles
        • 1863: tried to seize control of national government
        • Polish Socialist Party formed 1892
        • Brest-Litovsk gave Poland independence but were re-invade in WW2 and then became USSR satellite state
      • Ukrainians
        • 1863  + 76 Alexander II issued decrees forbidding the publication of books in Ukrainian
        • Brest-Litovsk gave the independence but were re-invade in Civil War
        • Bread Basket of Russia
          • Resisted collectivisation heavily as they knew their value to the Russian economy and were thus purged more harshly
            • 1932 Ukrainian Famine
      • Jews
        • Heavy repression
          • Alexander III had 14000 regulations governing their lives
          • Stalin targeted them after WWII
          • Jewish Doctors Plot 1953
    • Individuals
      • Lenin
        • Kamenev, Zinoviev and Rykov all called for a coalition with Social Revolutionaries
        • Stalin formed a troika with Kamenev and Zinoviev in order to combat the popularity of Trotsky
        • Ban on Opposition 1921
      • Stalin
        • Power Struggle involved Stalin ousting many leading Bolsheviks from the party
          • Kamenev
          • Zinoviev
          • Bukharin
          • Rykov
          • Tomsky
          • Trotsky
        • Show Trials
          • Zinoviev
          • Kamenev
          • Bukharin
          • Rykov
          • Kossior
          • Ordhonikze
          • Kuibyshev
          • Rudzuki
        • Kirov's assassination was arguably the catalyst for the purges of the 1930s. There is debate over whether Stalin assassinated him himself.
          • Kirov opposed Stalin's paranoia and calls for vigilance and called for more leniency
      • Khrushchev
        • Power struggle with Malenkov and Beria
          • Beria was later executed on accusation of being a British spy
      • Provisional Government
        • Lenin
          • Peace, Land and Bread
          • Lead what amounted to an armed coup in October 1917
            • Kerensky did try and martial troops to defend the provisional government but was not successful
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