National 5 History: Unit 2 Changing Britain- Textile Factories

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  • Textile Factories
    • Working conditions
      • Lack of windows
      • No heating system
      • Workers frequently would breathe in soot, oil & cotton fibres
      • Beatings were common
      • No safety regulations, injuries and deaths were common
        • Limbs were also known to be lost if caught in machinery. Machinery would not have an 'emergency stop'
      • Very long days 12-14 hours: short break if at all
    • Why did the industrial revolution happen?
    • New technology on factories
      • Flying Shuttle
        • Increased speed of production and width of cotton cloth
      • Steam driven water pumps
        • Faster production
      • Richard Roberts
        • Semi-automatic mule for more cost-efficient production
        • Loom with cast iron frame for more efficient production
    • Laws passed to improve conditions
      • 1802 FACTORY ACT
        • All factories ventilated
          • Children between 9-13 8 HOURS MAX, older children no more than 12 hours
      • 1833 FACTORY ACT
        • Lunch breaks for children added and hours further cut
          • No one under 18 to work at night
            • 4 inspectors to enforce act
      • 1844 FACTORY ACT
        • Deaths must be reported and investigated
          • Machinery to be fenced in
            • Ages must be verified
      • 1847 FACTORY ACT
        • Workers not exceed 58 hour week
    • Reasons for improvement for the workers in factories
      • 1832 Royal Commission set up to investigate conditions for workers
      • Lord Shaftsbury and Sir Robert Peel campaigned for better conditions for workers
    • Cotton Mills
      • Jobs
        • Carding: de-tangling cotton threads using hand cards
          • Scavengers: Cleaning around and under machines, normally as they are moving
            • Spinning the cotton onto thread
              • Weaving thread into cloth
      • 1802 cotton industry accounted for 4/5% of income in Britain


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