Disorders of Development

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What is caused by genetic inheritance?
Down's syndrome = fragile X, Retts, Turner, wiliams
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What is putatively aused by genetic inheritance?
Autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder
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What is caused by the environmental cause?
Cerebral palsy
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What is Autism spectrum disorder
Marked by social inability, poor communication and narrowing interests
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When was first described?
In the mid 20th century but is a condition that predates this time
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How often does it occur and when does it occur?
1:100, more common in boys than girls
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What is it?
Lifelong and it can be present in people with high and low IQ
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What are 2 theories of ASD?
Theory of mind hypothesis and theory of weak central coherance
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What is weak central coherance?
The person would have to locate a shape in a picture and autistic people could do it significantly faster than normal people
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What is William's syndrome?
Cuased by truncation of chormosome 7
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How often does it occur?
Rate of 1:10,000
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How is it marked?
Distinctive appearance: fragile and underweight, large eyes, low bridge of nose and widely spaced teeth
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What are some associated features?
Heart abnormalities, hormonal problems, digestive system issues, neurological problems
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What are people with Williams syndrom good at?
Good eye contact, engaging, highly sociable and talkative
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However what do they have?
Poor visuo-spatial abilities, poor memory for the layout of the physical environment, poor ability to understand maps.
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What is ADHD marked by?
Inattention – unresponsive and yet distractible ◦ Hyperactive – seem to have an internal dynamo, fidgeting, impossible to sit still ◦ Impulsive – unwilling to queue, unable to await turn in games
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What is prevalance?
2:100
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What is the heritability?
75%
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but affected by?
environmental factors such as diet and more common in boys than girls
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What is the first theory of ADHD?
A cognitive disorder, problems with executive function-like frontal syndrome
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What did Sonuga-Barke suggest?
A disorder of reward and motivation, problems with delayed gratification
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What is cerebral Palsy?
Prevalence, 2:1000  Damage to the brain caused by hypoxia (e.g. problems with placenta, with trauma at birth, premature birth etc).
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What is it marked by?
Marked by poor movement control ◦ Damage to motor cortex and connections between motor cortex and cerebellum
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What is it marked by?
Problems with vision, especially depth perception, Problems with hearing. Heightened sensitivity to touch, Speech impediment, Learning disability, But some have intellectual functioning in the normal or high ability range), Risk of epileptic se
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Language disorder?
More common in boys than girls  Language areas of the brain implicated in some of these disorders ◦ Broca’s area ◦ Wernicke’s area
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What is Broca's syndrome?
They find it hard to accumulate words
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What is WErnickes' syndrome?
Fluent talk but not comprehensible
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What is developmental dyslexia?
difficulty in reading, strugggle to identify syllables a word has, struggle to identify rhyming words, difficulty discriminating between sounds of different letters
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However, what is it affected by?
Environmental factors?
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Such as?
Developmental dyslexia is much more common in nontransparent languages like English than in transparent languages like Italian and Japanese.
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what is specific language impairment?
Marked as delay in the development of receptive and expressive language abilities  Problems with basic features of grammar ◦ Difficulty with past tense ◦ Difficulty with plural form of nouns ◦ Confusion between the definite and the indefinite articl
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What is pragmatic language impairment?
 Marked as a disorder of the social use of language (has some similarity to ASD) ◦ Talking excessively ◦ Talking about unsuitable topics ◦ Knowledge of obscure words (hyperlexia) coupled with ignorance of common words
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Card 2

Front

What is putatively aused by genetic inheritance?

Back

Autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder

Card 3

Front

What is caused by the environmental cause?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is Autism spectrum disorder

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When was first described?

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