Svalbard Casestudy

  • Created by: Jo Peters
  • Created on: 17-03-19 12:21
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  • Svalbard
    • Opportunities
      • Mineral Extraction
        • Rich reserves of coal
        • Coal mining is controversial
        • Main economic activity
        • More than 300 people employed in mining
        • 2014 new mine opened and new road across a glacier
      • Fishing
        • 150 different species of fish including cod, herring and haddock
        • Barents Sea one of the richest fishing grounds in the world
      • Energy Developments
        • Geothermal energy from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
        • Coal power station on Spitzbergen only one in Norway
          • Supplies all electricity on the island
        • Carbon Capture an option for generating electricity
      • Tourism
        • Harbour has been enlarged to allow more crusie ships
        • Adventure tourism popular e.g. hiking, kayaking, snow mobile safaris
        • 300+ people employed in tourism
    • Challenges
      • Construction
        • Melted permafrost leads to building and road slumping and collapsing
        • Roads are dirt or gravel
          • Easy to build and maintain
      • Services
        • Water, electricity and sanitation cannot be under ground
        • Pipes are built above the surface
          • This prevents melting of permafrost
          • Allows east access
        • Pipes are insulated to prevent them from freezing
      • Accessibility
        • Remote location accessible by plane and sea only
        • One international airport on Spitzenberg
          • Smaller craft can land on other islands
        • Only 50km of road in Longyearbyen
          • No roads elsewhere
          • Most people use snowmobiles
    • Location
      • Svalbard is a group of 5 islands in the Arctic Ocean
      • Svalbard is a Norwegian territory
      • Svaldard has a population of about 2700
      • Main island is Spitzbergen
      • Main Town is Longyearbyen
  • Jointly controlled by Norway and Russia to ensure sustainability
    • Fishing
      • 150 different species of fish including cod, herring and haddock
      • Barents Sea one of the richest fishing grounds in the world
  • Energy Developments
    • Geothermal energy from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
    • Coal power station on Spitzbergen only one in Norway
      • Supplies all electricity on the island
    • Carbon Capture an option for generating electricity
  • 2011- 70,000 tourists visited
    • Tourism
      • Harbour has been enlarged to allow more crusie ships
      • Adventure tourism popular e.g. hiking, kayaking, snow mobile safaris
      • 300+ people employed in tourism
    • 30,000 were cruise passengers
  • Extreme Temperature
    • Winter temps fall below -30C
    • Risk of frostbite
    • Outdoor work slow and difficult
    • Challenges
      • Construction
        • Melted permafrost leads to building and road slumping and collapsing
        • Roads are dirt or gravel
          • Easy to build and maintain
      • Services
        • Water, electricity and sanitation cannot be under ground
        • Pipes are built above the surface
          • This prevents melting of permafrost
          • Allows east access
        • Pipes are insulated to prevent them from freezing
      • Accessibility
        • Remote location accessible by plane and sea only
        • One international airport on Spitzenberg
          • Smaller craft can land on other islands
        • Only 50km of road in Longyearbyen
          • No roads elsewhere
          • Most people use snowmobiles
  • 4 Layers of clothing needed for outdoors
    • 1. Thermal layer
      • 2. Fleece layer
        • 3. Woolen, padded layer
          • 4. Wind and waterproof layer
            • 4 Layers of clothing needed for outdoors
              • 1. Thermal layer
                • 2. Fleece layer
                  • 3. Woolen, padded layer
                    • 4. Wind and waterproof layer
                • Extreme Temperature
                  • Winter temps fall below -30C
                  • Risk of frostbite
                  • Outdoor work slow and difficult
    • Permafrost - good foundations but needs protecting from melting

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