AQA Chemistry C2 1

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  • Created by: DeanJowl
  • Created on: 25-10-12 14:59
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  • Structure and Bonding
    • When losing electrons you form positive ions and when gaining them you form negative ions.
      • For an ion to be stable it must have a full outer energy level of electrons
        • 2,8,8 is the order of electrons on each energy level.
    • Ionic Bonding  occurs when a metal reacts with a non metal.
    • The charges in an ionic compound always cancel each other.
      • Group 1 elements form 1 + atoms, Group 2 ions form 2+ ions, Group 7 form 1- Ions and Group 6 elements form 2- ions.
        • The formula of an ionic compound shows the ratio of ions present in the compounds.
    • Covalent bonds are formed when atoms share pairs of electrons.
      • You can have covalent bonds consisting of  simple molecules and others that are giant covalent structures.
    • The atoms in metals are closely packed together and arranged in regular layers.
    • We think of metallic bonding as positively charged metal ions which are held together by electrons from the outermost shell of each metal atom. These delocalised electrons are free to move throughout the giant metallic lattice.
  • These ions are held together by very stong electrostatic forces of attraction.
    • Ionic Bonding  occurs when a metal reacts with a non metal.
    • They are  represented by dot and cross diagrams that only present the outer shell.
      • They are arranged in giant lattice structure.
  • These covalent bonds are expressed by two joining dot and cross diagrams like a venn diagram.
    • You can have covalent bonds consisting of  simple molecules and others that are giant covalent structures.
    • They join together to form a full outer energy level.
      • Giant covalent structures are held together by a network of covalent bonds.
        • Examples of these structures are Diamonds, Silicon Dioxide and Graphite.

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