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  • Created by: selene98
  • Created on: 06-05-15 09:30
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  • Strategies to increase food supply
    • The green revolution - began in 1940s
      • Spread the use of intensive farming methods and the use of technology
      • Positives - food production increased through
        • Higher yielding crops and animals
        • Monocultures (growing one crop over one large area)
        • Irrigation technologies, e.g. groundwater pumping
        • Agrochemicals; pesticides, herbicides, etc
        • Mechanisation, e.g. machines for harvesting, weeding, etc
      • Negative impacts
        • Bankruptcy of small farms, leading to unemployment + food shortages
        • Lower food security, e.g. monoculture can be wiped out by one pest
        • Monoculture can reduce biodiversity
        • Over-irrigation can lead to salinization and waterlogging
        • Pollution from Agrochemicals
        • Soil erosion and reduced fertility by mechanisation
        • Pesticides can lead to superpests, resistant to pesticides
      • India began in 1961 + financed agrochemicals, developed irrigation systems. Yields (rice) tripled
    • Genetic Modification (GM)
      • Crops that have been altered by the addition of genes that give them beneficial characteristics
      • Can be modified to make them increase food production
        • Produce herbicides
        • Herbicide and pesticide tolerant
        • Resistant to disease
        • Higher yielding, by increasing the size or rate of growth
        • Longer-lasting
        • Resistant to harsh environmental conditions
      • Bt maze and Bt cotton contain a gene to produce toxins tolerant to insecticides
      • Negative impacts
        • More agrochemicals to be used can cause environmental damage
        • Pesticides produced can harm non-pest species
        • Cross-pollination can lead to death of other plants
    • Land colonisation
      • When humans move to a land that hasn't been used before
      • e.g. 2mil hectares of the Amazon forest are cleared a day
      • Disadvantages
        • Environmental damage, e.g. deforestation
        • Conflicts with indigenous population
    • Land reform
      • When land is redistributed, e.g. from gov to people
      • e,g, Albania in 90s, 380k farms redistributed
      • Disadvantages
        • Conflicts over ownership of land
        • Human rights violations
    • Commercialisation
      • Increases production through GREEN REVOLUTION technologies
      • e.g. Kenya's 4th largest tea exporter making it the country's main income
      • Disadvantages
        • Food shortages for the locals due to best land used
        • Problems with Green Rev techs
    • Appropriate Technologies
      • Simple and low techs that increase food productions
      • Made and maintained by local knowledge and resources ONLY
      • e.g. Treadle pump, a human powered pump, from Bangladesh 80s.
        • Pumps water from below the ground to irrigate small areas of land
        • It has increased Bangladeshi farmer's income by $100
        • Important as rice needs lots of water to grow
      • Disadvantages
        • Labour intensive

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