SOCIAL ROLES - Separated into ASCRIBED ROLES and ACHIEVED ROLES.
- ROGER's Socialisation Wheel - illustrates the different social agents that influence our behaviour and our sense of who we should be.
The socialisation process is the mechanism through which children develop an awareness of social norms and values, and achieve a distinct sense of self. It begins with PRIMARY SOCIALISATION- friends & Family. Followed by SECONDARY SOCIALISATION- State, Education, Work, Religion and Media.
Argyle & Charles Cooley.- The Looking Glass Self
ARGYLE suggests we learn what is appropriate through:
- Direct feedback- We are told when we are getting it wrong and right.
- The allocation of social roles- we are a son not a daughter.
- Comparing ourselves to others- we observe the behaviour of others. (Significant Others & Role Models)
This process is referred to as:
THE LOOKING GLASS SELF.
A person views them-self through other's social perceptions and in turn gains identity through this information called feedback. The concept was developed by CHARLES COOLEY - 1902
- We imagine how we must appear to others
- We imagine the judgement of that appearance
- We develop our self through the judgements of others.
Dimbleby & Burton
The Development of the Self Concept Triangle- DIMBLEBY AND BURTON.
We not only develop a sense of who we are through feedback but also develop a sense of who we should be and a sense of how well we are doing in the journey towards our ideal self.
- We construct ourselves in order to win approval of others.
Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs
MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS - Our need to be accepted as part of a group- our culture is a fundamental group to belong to- hence the significance of Socialisation and feedback.
In order to fulfill our basic needs, humans need to be an accepted member of a group. Only then can they go onto being the best person they can be. This is why we conform to social roles, wish to appear normal and be accepted.
Self Esteem - Coopersmith
Those with high levels of self-esteem had received positive feedback and lots of interaction with their parents. Vice Versa. - COOPERSMITH
Those with high levels of self-esteem:
- Generally physically healthier
- More articulate
- More confident
- Outgoing and Adventurous
- More popular
- would self-disclose more and honestly
Those with low self esteem:
- More prone to minor physical ailments
- Less articulate
- Less physically active
- Less inclined to try new activities
Self- Fulfilling Prophecy- Merton
MERTON believes that once we have decided that we have a particular self-concept we seem to seek out information to confirm out this view of ourselves and ignore or play down any information that contradicts our existing view.
(Those with low self-esteem will pay more attention to negative feedback believing it confirms their self image whilst those with high self-esteem will pay more attention to positive feedback.)
- I think that people do not like me and believe i am unpopular as a result i shall stay at home, not mix or make conversation and as a result of my behaviour. Some people do begin to not like me .
The Prophecy comes true.
Social Interaction- The Johari Window
THE JOHARI WINDOW
This complex interplay between our sense of who we are, how much of ourselves we dare show to others and how this is a response to the feedback we get from others.
- If we know someone well and we trust them we will be prepared to self-disclosure some personal information. If this receives positive feedback we will be encouraged to reveal more and the relationship will grow.
- If we recieve negative feedback we will either stop self-disclosing or reveal something untrue in attempt to gain positive feedback.
- Those with high self-esteem self-disclose more.
- Those with low self-esteem self-disclose less.
- As a result of gender socialisation, women self-disclose more.
The unknown quarter provides the explanation of these behaviours as it refers to our previous experiences.
Self- Presentation In Everyday Life: Goffman
GOFFMAN recognised that the need to conform to social rules meant that most of us are acting out of our identities in order to create a positive impression on other people. Being SOCIALLY ACCEPTABLE is about recognising that different roles being played in different contexts require different performances if we wish to appear 'normal'.
'We all act better than we know'
- Create a persona- Mask using props such as clothing
- Give a performance- Read the script. Either sincere or cynical performance. Sincere being not to impress anyone and cynical being to impress others.
- On a particular stage- Different requirements whether it is front (Audience) or back (Private and informal) stage.
- As part of a team- Acted out with others who have expectations of the role we will play.
Once we have fulfilled all the other expectations of the performance, how much room is there for personal style?
'It's not what you say, it's the way that you say it'
- Reinforce the spoken word
- Replace the spoken word using their bodies to make visual signals.
- Help manage our social and our professional relationships
- Helps present the self that we want others to see
- Conveys our mood/state of mind & interpersonal feelings
- Supports our verbal message if we are speaking
- Provides feedback, Status and Power, Social Roles and Group Membership
Can be Involuntary (LEAKAGE-reflex action) or Voluntary (Reinforce spoken message)
- Kinesics- physical gestures & Movements
- Eye Contact,Proxemics, Dress Code and Para-linguisitcs-feedback sounds.
This can be written or spoken. Written has status in our culture as it is a method of keeping knowledge safe and passing it on to subsequent generations.
Spoken Language- Signifier of identity and is the outcome of socialisation.
Explored through the use of restricted/elaborate code, regional accent/ received pronunciation.
Changing attitudes to formality, informality, status and taboo subjects can all be explored through the different language, especially slang and insults.
Through the process of socialisation. Issues of power, status, self-image and social roles can all be explored through gendered use of language. e.g- Swearing.