AS Sports Psychology

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  • Sports Psychology
    • Motivation
      • Motivation is the external and internal influences that direct our behaviour. There are 2 types these   are:                  Introverts and Extroverts
    • Arousal
      • Arousal is the energised state of readiness controlled by the RAS system and is necessary for high levels of performance.
    • Drive Theory
      • The drive theory suggests that there is a linear relationship between performance and arousal. it only occurs when skills are well learnt.
        • This theory helps explain why beginners find it difficult to perform well under high pressure as their dominant response may be less skillfully learnt. however it doesn't explain why we put ourselves through stressful situations
    • Bandura's Social Learning Theory
      • This theory suggests that all behaviour is learnt throughout experiences and that inherited factors do not influence behaviour.
      • It takes place via imitating others and through reinforcement
    • Hollander's layers of interactionist approach
      • It suggests that our psychological core consists of innate traits. These are typical responses that change depending on the type of environment you find yourself in.
    • Extroverts and Introverts
      • Extroverts have low levels of arousal and are therefore more out going.
        • Introverts have high levels of arousal so tend to be shy and reserved, avoiding social situations.
    • Attitude
      • This is someones personality towards a particular situation. It is formed via experiences and can be positive or negative.
        • Attitudes cam be changed by either: - providing new information to dispel old thoughts; giving the individual praise and change the experience they had; or to simplify skills to ensure success and boost their confidence.
    • Limitations of the triadic model
      • This model cannot always be generalised to every individuals beliefs about physical fitness and social situations will also influence behaviour.
    • Cognitive dissonance
      • This is the belief that someone wants to participate in exercise but has conflict with bad experiences so they avoid it all together.
    • The catastrophe theory
      • As arousal increases so does performance until it reaches its optimal point before there is a rapid drop in performance levels.
    • Inverted U theory
      • As arousal increases so does performance until it reaches its optimum. If the activity involves fine skills, arousal must be low to optimise performance levels.
    • Persuasive communicati-on theory
      • This is a theory which suggests a way of changing someones attitude.
        • Factors that might effect the effectiveness of the persuasive communication theory are: - the persuader as a person; the quality of the message given; the situation and the amount of persuaders (the more persuaders the more likely the individual is to change).

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