Social Tensions 1919-29

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  • Social tensions 1919-29
    • KKK
      • From 1881 - 1930, 3,724 people were lynched in the US - 4/5ths were negos
      • After WW1, African-American soldiers wanted more rights but racial violence was at its peak
      • Doc Simmons refounced the KKK in 1915 and spoke of defending 'Morality, Americanism, protestantism and White Supremacy'
      • In 1921 the KKK had 100,000 memebers
        • By 1925, the organisation claimed to have 5 million members at its peak
          • At its peak in 1925, 40% of its members came from 3 states = Indiana, Ohio and Illinois
          • By 1930, membership fell to 200,000 and there were no longer a player on the national stage
      • By 1925, the organisation claimed to have 5 million members at its peak
        • At its peak in 1925, 40% of its members came from 3 states = Indiana, Ohio and Illinois
        • By 1930, membership fell to 200,000 and there were no longer a player on the national stage
      • in 1923 Rosewood Flordia had an entirely black population bar one family, A mob from Georgia came in search for a 'rapist' and the only house not burnt was the white residence
        • The red scare provided the perfect breeding ground for bigotry
          • The Red Scare
            • 1920 was a massive turning point for immigration
              • 1921 - Emergency Immigration Quota Act = Put a limit on new immigrants to 3% of what the 1910 levels were
              • 1924 - Johnson-Reed Act = Changed the quota to 2% of the 1890 which overwhelmingly cut immigration
            • Literacy tests were intoduced in 1917 to limit the entry of 'inferior races'
            • There was a rise in political threats from anarchism and communism and public oinion was affected by the war which increased nationalism
            • President Wilson spoke of the need for 100% Americanism
            • Sacco and Vanzetti
              • Their case illustrates many fears of the American society, they were easy targets
              • 22/35 eyewitnesses stated that they werent there
              • They were accused of an armed robbery in 1920 - both men spoke little english and it was claimed that they were anarchists
              • They both had witnesses of their whereabouts but it was disregarded as they were from the immigrant community
              • They were eventually executed in 1927 after years of legal appeals
    • The Red Scare
      • 1920 was a massive turning point for immigration
        • 1921 - Emergency Immigration Quota Act = Put a limit on new immigrants to 3% of what the 1910 levels were
        • 1924 - Johnson-Reed Act = Changed the quota to 2% of the 1890 which overwhelmingly cut immigration
      • Literacy tests were intoduced in 1917 to limit the entry of 'inferior races'
      • There was a rise in political threats from anarchism and communism and public oinion was affected by the war which increased nationalism
      • President Wilson spoke of the need for 100% Americanism
      • Sacco and Vanzetti
        • Their case illustrates many fears of the American society, they were easy targets
        • 22/35 eyewitnesses stated that they werent there
        • They were accused of an armed robbery in 1920 - both men spoke little english and it was claimed that they were anarchists
        • They both had witnesses of their whereabouts but it was disregarded as they were from the immigrant community
        • They were eventually executed in 1927 after years of legal appeals
    • Women
      • Although women had been trying to get the vote for 72 years, it was WW1 which allowed them to do so
      • in 1880, 2.6 million women were employed but by 1910 there was 7.8 million
      • Whilst they were still seen as inferior it was their skill and devotion which kept the economy from falling apart during the war
      • Although on the surface women seemed more assertive and 'liberated' their opportunities in society still remained limited
      • Congress passed the legislation 4th June 1919 under the 19th ammendment

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