Social problems and issues in Tsarists Russia

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  • Social problems and issues
    • Rural problems
      • There was still a widespread rural poverty, there was still a large divisions between the peasantry classes with the wealthier entrepreneur kulaks taking advantage and bought up more land from those who couldn't afford to keep it.
        • This shows that the rural Russian society hasn't recovered from the Emancipation of the Serfs in 1861
      • Large quantities of people migrated in schemes set up by the government to go to Siberia via the Trans-Siberian railway.
        • This shows that many peasants
      • Some nobles had thrived after the Emancipation because of the favourable land distribution for the nobles or they moved to an industrial enterprise.
        • 1/3 f nobles land was given to the townsfolk and peasantry.
        • There were no attacks made on their income or their traditional values or lifestyles
        • Nicholas just like his father had encouraged the noble influence within local governments like the zemstva.
      • The middle-class was demanded and needed for the ever more increasing complexity of modernising.
        • The middle class were seen primarily in places of power such as the zemstva and other local governmental powers like the duma.
    • Urban problems
      • Conditions of the residents in place like Moscow and St Petersburg were grossly inadequate.
        • 40% of the 'private' homes in St Petersburg didn't have running water or sewage system, this lead to 30,000 inhabitants dying of cholera between 1908 and 1909.
        • The demand for accommodation  was still so high that rent often it took half a worker's wages and those who couldn't afford it slept next to their machine.
          • Wages depended on if the person as skilled or unskilled,and how many hours you put in. But even though women made up 1/3 of the work force they were still payed less.
        • The lack of attention given to the up keep of their workers the Russian govenerment payed little to no attention to them. This highlighted the remaining class system that was clearly still there
      • There was a 85% increase in primary schools and there was a governmental development of technical schools and universities.
        • The Russian government was taking a step towards trying to improve the education of their workers.
        • However the investment into education was still lower than investment in to the railways.
      • Political activism was rare in the cities before 1905, as strikes were illegal and the secret police were effective. Also due to the workers desperately trying to hold on to their jobs.
        • Before January 9th 1905, Blood Sunday, the tension built up between the working class and their superiors this lead Father Gapon to rally the workers and head to the Winter Palace to hand the Tsar, their Little Father, a petition. After the massacre outside the palace this lead to even more unrest between the classes.
          • With Father Gapon creating the first Trade Union many more started to appear such as the 'All Russian Union of Railway Workers' and the 'Unions of Unions'

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