Russia 1881.

  • Created by: lx1234
  • Created on: 29-10-18 14:17
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  • Key Words
    • Autocracy, Divine Right, Nationality, Russification, Okhrana, Zemstva or Zemstvo
    • Russia 1881-1905
      • Population
        • 74 million, by 1914 = 164 million.
        • 80% peasants.
          • more mouths to feed, more families, land shrinking
          • Peasant Land Bank 1880. lend money to richer peasants = buy more land to grow food, ineffective,
        • 2% workers
      • Geography
        • 2 1/2 the size of USA
      • Politics, religion and government
        • Nicholas Viewed reforms with contempt and weakness,
          • "senseless dreams"
          • No constitution - laws governing what Tsar couldn't do
            • No Parliament (Dumas) law made by Tsar, including decrees.
          • no protection for the rights of individual
          • Russia was governed day to day by ministers appointed by the Tsar
    • Mir = Commune, village community makes decisions.
    • Proletariat = working class
    • Socialism = transitional phase between capitalism and communism
  • Okhrana
    • censor newspapers and books
    • infiltrate and destroy revolutionary and terrorist groups
    • 1900 there was 2500 agents
    • by 1900, had records on 55,000 people and 20,000 photos of suspected radicals
      • Policed Russia Uni's,
  • Government
    • The Cabinet/Committee of Ministers
      • Run gov depts, (8 ministries, inc war, finance, education army,) collect taxes, maintain law and order, appointed and dismissed by the Tsar, issue decrees approved by Tsar
    • The Senate
      • Concerned with supervising operation of law
    • Imperial Council
      • Group of honorary advisers directly responsible to Tsar. No formal training, inherits job, 60 nobles each with large admin staff
  • Society
    • 80% of population lived in small isolated villages and were farmers
    • Nobility
      • Often owned peasants or sufs, had extensive powers and controlled lives of their serfs.
        • Punish by flogging, exile, taxation
      • Below ruling elite were government officials who dependant on a salary
      • Huge body of civil servants
    • Middle Class
      • Little growth of towns or industry, limited.
      • Had no political power, couldn't own serfs
      • Resented economic power nobility had.
      • intelligentsia, critical of Tsarist regime
    • Industrial Workers
      • Town labourers, peasants driven off land ect, = growth in population.
        • lack real expert skill
      • Employed in gold, silver, copper and coal mines of SIbera and Urals
      • World leader in iron and silver production
      • Ill treated and overworked, wages low, long hours
    • Peasants/Serfs
      • Worked on nobles land, maids, cooks, ect. No control of lives. Men had to serve 15 yrs in army
      • Mir, self sufficient, grow food, make clothes, tools, ect. Surpluses sold to pay taxes.
        • families had own remedies for illnesses, villages had healers
          • ineffective farming.
      • Mir.
  • Middle Class
    • Little growth of towns or industry, limited.
    • Had no political power, couldn't own serfs
    • Resented economic power nobility had.
    • intelligentsia, critical of Tsarist regime
  • no industrial revolution
    • Economic Issues
      • 1881, some factories, mainly producing textiles in St. Petersburg and Moscow
      • communications system underdeveloped

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