Psychology Asch and conformity types/explanations

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  • Social Influence
    • Types and explanations of conformity.
      • There are 3 types of conformity.
        • Identification: When we conform to a group's behaviour because we VALUE the group in some way.
          • We may not necessarily believe/accept the behaviour as being correct but we change because we want to fit in.
        • Internalisation: It occurs when a person genuinely accepts the groups norms.
          • We take on the majority view because we believe it as correct.
        • Compliance: When we simply just go along with others in public but not changing our opinions and behaviour privately (when away from the group)
          • A temporary type of conformity.. we privately disagree with it. The behaviour or opinion stops as soon as the group pressure stops.
      • Explanations for conformity
        • THE TWO PROCESS THEORY FOR EXPLAININGCONFORMI-TY
          • 1)Informational social influence (ISI) Simply means that we will conform to whoever has the best information. We agree with the  majority opinion because we believe it is correct. We follow the majority because individuals want to be right
            • ISI is most likely to happen in situations that are NEW to a person or situations where it isn't clear (there is ambiguity) or when one is considered to be an expert or if you have to make quick decisions.
            • 2) Normative social influence (NSI). Simply means what is normal or typical behaviours to a particular society. People want to gain social approval so they will agree with the overall society's behaviour in order to fit in.
      • Evaluation
        • Research Support for ISI.. Lucas et al asked students to answer maths q's, there was greater conformity to incorrect answers when they were harder in comparison to easier ones. Looking to others in situations where we assume people know better than us.
        • Individual differences in NSI: some research shows that not everyone behaves in the same way, those who don't care about being liked are less affected by NSI
        • ISI and NSI work together.. the two process model says they work separately. Conformity is reduced when there is another dissenter which may reduce NSI as they provide support or reduce ICI as they're an alternative source of info, indicating them both working together.
    • Conformity: Asch's research
      • Procedure
        • Showed participants two large white cards. On one card was  a STANDARD LINE. And on the other was three lines, one being same length as standard (2 were CLEARLY wrong)
        • 123 American male undergradua-tes
        • Each naïve participant was tested with 6-8 confederates
        • All confederates were instructed to give the same wrong answer after answering the first few correctly. 18trials-12 were critical
      • Findings
        • Gave wrong answer 37% of the time
        • 25% didn't conform at all
        • 75% conformed atleast ONCE
      • Asch's Variations:
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