Skeletal system

  • Created by: Lucy141
  • Created on: 06-05-19 11:06
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  • Skeletal system
    • Types of bones
      • Flat bones
        • Sternum, ribs, cranium, pelvis
        • Protect internal organs, site for muscle attachment
      • Long bones
        • Femur, humerus, radius, tibia, phalanges
        • Act as levers for movement, site for blood cell production
      • Irreguar bones
        • Protect spinal cord,
        • Vertebrae,
      • Short bones
        • Carpals, tarsals
        • Bear weight well
      • Sesamoid bones
        • Patella
      • Ease joint movement and resist compression
    • Synovial joints
      • Crucial in sport and exercise, allow free movement, allow range of movement
      • Ligament: tough band of slightly elastic connective tissue, connects bones and stabilises
      • Synovial fluid: lubricating liquid contained within the joint cavity, reduces friction , nourishes articular cartilage
      • Articular cartilage: smooth tissue covers surface articulating bones, absorbs show
      • Joint capsule: a fibrous sac with inner synovial membrane, encloses and strengthens the joint
      • Bursa: a closed, fluid-filled sac found where tendons rub over bones, reduces friction
    • Planes of movement
      • Sagittal plane: lies vertical, divides the body into left and right parts from medial to lateral
      • Frontal plane: lies vertical, divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
      • Transverse plane: lies horizontally, divides the body into superior and inferior parts
    • Types of joints
      • Hinge joint: cylindrical bone articulates with trough-shaped bone held tightly ligaments, limit sideways movement eg. elbow, knee
      • Pivot joint: rounded bone articulates with ring-shaped bone restricts motion to one plane eg. radio-ulnar joint
      • Gliding joint: almost flat similar-sized bones articulate with limited motion in three planes eg, spine
      • Ball and socket joint: ball-shaped head articulates with a cup-shaped socket to give large range of motion in all three planes eg. hip and shoulder
      • Condyloid joint: similar to ball and socket joint but flatter bone surface to allow motion in two planes eg. wrist
    • Types of movement
      • Flexion: movement which decreases the joint angle, usually to the front of the body
      • Extension: movement which increases the joint angle usually t the back of the body
      • Doris-flexion: movement at the ankle joint as the toes move up
      • Plantar flexion: movement at the ankle joint as the toes move down
      • Abduction: movement of the limbs away from the midline of the body
      • Adduction: movement of the limbs away from the midline of the body
      • Horizontal extension: movement of the limbs away from the midline of the body parallel to the ground
      • Horizontal flexion: movement of the limbs towards the midline of the body parallel to the ground
      • Rotation: movement whereby articulating bones turn about their lingitudinal axis in a screwdriver action

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