Skeletal and Muscular Systems

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  • Skeletal and Muscular Systems
    • Joints, movements and muscles
      • Shoulder
        • Delts, lats, pecs, traps
      • Elbow
        • Bicep brachii, tricep brachii
      • Wrist
        • Wrist flexor, wrist extensors
      • Hip
        • Iliopsoas, glutes, adductor longus
      • Knee
        • Bicep femoris, rectus femoris
      • Ankle
        • Tibialis anterior, soleus, gastrocnemius
      • flexion (dorsi, plantar), extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, circumduction
    • Planes of movement
      • Frontal
        • Divides into front and back - creates sideways motion
      • Transverse
        • Divides into upper and lower, creates rotational motion
      • Sagittal
        • Divides into left and right, creates forward/backward motion
    • Antagonistic pairs
      • Agonist
        • Contracts to create movement
      • Antagonist
        • Opposes the movement
      • Fixator
        • Stabilizes the joint
    • Contractions
      • Isotonic
        • Concentric
          • Muscle becomes shorter to create movement
        • Eccentric
          • Muscle lengthens when creating movement
      • Isometric
        • No change in muscular length - muscles contract to maintain stability
    • Motor Unit
      • 4. Creates muscular contraction
        • 3. Neurotransmitter carries impulse across synaptic cleft to motor end plate
          • 2. Action potential carried to neuromuscular junction
            • 1. Motor neuron creates action potential
      • All or None Law
        • Muscle will either fully contract or not at all - no inbetween
    • Fibre Types
      • Slow Oxidative
        • Contract slow Aerobic Resist high fatigue Force low Oxidative capacity high Glycogen low Capillary high
      • Fast Glycolytic
        • Contract fast Anaerobic Resist low fatigue Force high Oxidative capacity low Glycogen high Capillary low
      • Fast Oxidative Glycolytic
        • Contract fast Anaerobic Resist medium fatigue Force high Oxidative capacity medium Glycogen medium Capillary medium

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