1.1 Skeletal and Muscular systems


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  • Skeletal system
    • The skeletal system
      • the skeleton is framework for the body which gives it protection for internal organs, is a site for blood cell production and is a mineral store.
        • provides attachment for the muscular system.
          • acts as lever and pivot points required to create movement.
      • Joint Type
        • A joint is an area of the body where two or more bones articulate to create human movement.
          • Ligament
            • A tough band of slight elastic tissure
              • connects bone to bone and stabilises joints during movement.
          • Synovial fluid
            • lubricating liquid contained within the joint cavity
              • Reduces friction and nourishes articular cartilage
          • Articular cartilage
            • smooth tissue which covers the surface of articulating bones.
              • Absorbs shock and allows friction-free movement
          • Joint Capsule
            • A fibrous sac with an inner synovial membrane
              • Encloses and strengthens the joint secreting synovial fluid
          • Bursa
            • A closed, fluid-filled sac found where tendons rub over bones
              • Reduces friction between tendons and bones
    • Types of Bone
      • Long Bones
        • Femur, radius, tibia and phalanges.
          • act as levers for movement and act as sites for blood cell production
      • Flat Bones
        • Sternum, ribs, cranium and pelvis
          • protect internal organs but also act as suitable sites for muscular attachment.
    • Planes of movement
      • The description of three dimensional movements at a joint
        • The Sagittal plane: lies vertically. it divides the body into left and right parts from the medial to the lateral.
        • The frontal plane lies vertically. it divides the body into anterior and posterior.
        • The Transverse plane lies horizontally. it divides the body into superior and inferior.
      • Movement patterns: a description of the actions taking place at the joint - for example, flexion and extension at the elbow joint.
    • Sagittal plane
      • flexion = movement which decreases the joint angle, usually to the front of the body.
      • Extension = movement which increases the joint angle, usually to the back of the body.
      • Dorsi-flexion = movement at the ankle joint as the toes move up.
      • Plantar flexion = movement at the ankle joint as the toes move down.
    • Frontal plane
      • Abduction = movement of the limbs away from the midline of the body.
      • Adduction = movement of the limbs towards the midline of the body.
    • Transverse plane
      • horizontal extension of a joint moves the articulating bone away from the midline of the body.
      • Horizontal flexion of a joint moves the articulating bone closer to the midline of the body.
      • Rotation = movement whereby articulating bones turn about their axis in a screwdriver action.

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