Schaffer's stages of attatchment

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  • Schaffer's stages of attachment
    • Schaffer and Emerson
      • formation of early attatchment and the age which developed, emotional intensity and to whom they were directed
    • Method
      • 60 babies, Glasgow, skilled working-class families
      • Babies and mothers visited at home every month for first year and again at 18 months
      • Rsearchers asked mothers questions about the kind of protest their babies showed in 7 everyday separations
        • designed to measure infants attachment; separation anxiety and stranger anxiety
    • Findings
      • between 25-32 weeks 50% showed signs of separation anxiety towards a particular adult, usually the mother (specific attatchment)
      • By age of 40 weeks 80% babies had a specific attachment and 30% displayed multiple attachments
      • Attachment tended to be to the caregiver who was most interactive and sensitive to infant signals and facial expressions
    • 1) ASOCIAL
      • recognising and forming bonds with its carerers
      • behaviour towards human objects is similar; show preference for familiar adults and happier in presence of other humans
      • 2-7 months; display more observable social behaviour
        • preferance to people rather than objects; recognise and prefer familar adults
          • accept cuddles and comfort from any adult; no separation anxiety
    • 3) SPECIFIC
      • 7 months; display anxiety towards strangers - anxiety when seperated from mothers (65%)
        • Adult is termed the primary attatchment figure - who offers most interaction and responds to babies signals
    • 4) MULTIPLE
      • attachments of 2 or more people; secondary attachments
        • In Schaffer and Emerson's study - 29% of them had secondary attachments within a month of forming a specific attachment
        • By the age of 1 this happens


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