What is attatchment?
An emotional bond between two people in which each seeks closeness and feels more secure around attatchment figure
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What are caregiver-infant interactions?
Interactions between young babies and thei rparents are baby-led with adults repsonding to the behaviour of the baby
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What is reciprocity?
reciprocal = two way, interaction flows back and fourth between infanct and caregiver, involves mutual responsiveness
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Reciprocity A03?
It influences the childs physical, social and cognitive development, it becomes the basis for the development of basic trust or mistrust and shapes how child sees the world
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What is interational synchrony?
Infant reacts with care-givers speecg, results in a 'conversation dance'. Involves mutual focus, reciprocity and mirroring of emtoions and behavior.
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Study of interactional synchrony?
Condon and Sander (1974) - noticed how infants seem to coordinate their movements and gestures in time with adult speech.  They reported a ‘turn-taking’ similar to what you’d get in a conversation but a conversation in which only the adult is speakin
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What is immitation?
Infant copies caregivers actions/behaviours. Meltzoff and Moore (1977) found infants between 2+3 weeks of age imitate facial expressions
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What is sensitive responsiveness?
Caregivers respong appropriately to infants signals
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What did Schaffer and Emerson (1964) study?
Stages of attacthment, they studies 60 babies ay monly intervals for their first 18m of life, children studied at home and regular pattern developed in attatchment. diary kept of mothers
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What measures were recorded in the study?
Stranger anxiety, seperation anxiety, seperation anxiety and social referncing (degree to child looks at carer-secure base)
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What was the first stage of attatchment they identified?
Pre-attatchment phase - 0-3m of life baby learns to seperate people from objects, no preference on carerer
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Second stage?
Indiscrimate attatchment phase - 6w-7m - distinguishes and recognises diff people - no strong prefernce for carer
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Third stage?
Discriminate phase - 7-11m - forms strong attatchment with individual - content when they're around, distressed when not
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Schaffer's final stage of attatchment?
9m+, after 18m approx 32% of babies have atleast 5 attatchments
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A03 of Schaffer and Emerson's study?
lots of evidence to support their results but used limited sample. Cross cultural differences not considered. Tronick et al (1992) - in Zare infants have strong attatch to mom by 6m and no one else. low population valid - glassgow
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How has the role of the father increased?
In western countries fathers now have active roles cos mothers work too, men now have maternity leave
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Diff between mother and father role?
Mother - caring, nurting tole, faither - more playmate role
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Schaffer's evidence of father as a role?
found mother was only primary caregiver for only half, 1/3 infants preferred fathers
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Factors that affect father's role?
Cultural - men traditionally expected to be breadwinner role. Social policy - men only recently given paternal leave. Biological facotrs - men seem to lack emotional sensitivity.
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What was Harlow's animal study of attatchment?
Monkeys. He thoughts that attatchment develops as result of "tactile comfort" - infants have biological need to cling for comfort
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What was Harlow's procedure?
16 monkeys seperate from mothers immediately after birth, placed in cages with surrogate mothers, one made of wire, one covered in soft cloth. 8 monkeys could get milk from wire, 8 from cloth.
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What were the results?
Both groups spent more time with cloth mother, second group only used wire mom when hungry. He found these monkeys grew up timid, didnt know how to behave with others, difficulty mating and females were inadequate mothers. less than 90 days effects
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To Harlow, how can a monkey develop normally?
If it has something to clind to during first few months of life. He also concluded that early maternal deprivaition leads to emotional damaged but could be reversed if attatchment made before critical period
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A03 of Harlow?
unecessarily cruel and limited value in attemtping to understand effects of deprivation in human infants. monkeys suffered emotional harm, created anxiety in monkeys mothers
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What did Lorenz use for his imprinting theory?
A large clutch of goose eggs
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What did he do with the eggs?
When they hatched half were placed under goose mother which Lorenz kept other half besides him
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What did Lorenz do when the geese hatched?
Immitated mother gooses' quaking sound upon which young birds regarded him as their mother and followed him
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What did Lorenz find?
Geese follow the first moving thing they see
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What is the critical period for atattching?
12-17 hours after hatching
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What is the process of imprinting?
Innante attatchment that is programmed gentically
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What happens if no attatatchment is developed in 32 hours?
It is unlikely it will ever develop
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How di Lorenz ensure printing has occured?
He put all gooslings together in the box to mis them and the two gorups went ot their respective mothers
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What was Dollard and Miller (1950) learning theory of attatchment?
Attatchment is a learned behaviour that is aquired through CC and OP
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How does CC play a part?
food (UCS) produces pleasure (UCR). child associates food and mother together, mother becomes conditioned stimulus and happainess is CR - attatchment formed
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How does OC play a part?
Presence of caregiver is reinforcing for infant, infant gains pleasure/reward being fed. behaviour of infant reinforcing for caregiver. Reinforcement process is reciprocal (twoway) strenghtns bond
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How does Schaffer and Emerson's research critc this?
They found less than half of infants had a primary attatcgment to the person who usually fed them
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How does Harlow's research critc this?
It suggested monkeys became atatched to the soft surrogate mother rather than the one who fed it
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How does Lorenz research critic this?
Found gooslings imprinted on the first moving thing they see. attatchment = innate and not learnt
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Outline Bowlby's monotropic theory of attatchment?
Attatchment is important for childs survival. Attatchment behaviours in babies and caregivers have evolved through natural selction - infants genetically programmed with innate behaviours to ensure attatchment occurs
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What is monotropy?
A child has an innate need to attatch to onemain attatchment figure
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What does the concept of monotropy suggest?
There is one relationship that is more important than the rest
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What did Bowlby say was the critical period?
0-2.5 years of ife
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What does the childs relationship with primary caregiver provide?
An internal working model which influences later relationships - it is a cognitive framework compromising mental representations for understanding the world, self and others. A persons interaction is guded by memories and expectations from internal m
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What are the three main feautures of the internal working model?
a model of others being trustworthy, a model of the self as valuable and a model of the self when interacting with others
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How does Lorenz research support Bowlby?
Attatchment process of imprinting is innate which has critical perios, geese also atattched to one single person/animal/object
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How is monotropy supported by Efe tribe?
Efe women share the care of inants but inants return to their natural mother at night and form a stable bond
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How does Ainsworth's stange situation support Bowlby?
provides evidence for the existence of internal working model, a secure child will develop a positive internal working model bcos has received sensitive emotional care from primary caregiver
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Contradictory evidence?
Schaffer and Emerson finding multiple attatchments
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Implications of monotropy?
role of the father, mother returning to employment, use of daycare
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What was the procedure in Ainsworth's strange situation?
controlled observation recording reactions of child and mother who were in a strange room with toys. 100 m/c american infants+mothers. infants behaviour observed suring predetermined activites
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How many episodes did infants experience and for how long?
8 episodes of approx 3 mins each
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What is the child observed for?
playing for 20 mins while caregivers and strangers enter and leave the room
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What did the observers note?
childs willingness to explore, seperation anxiety, strager anxiety and reunion behaviour
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What was type b attatchment?
Secure - strong bond between child and caregiver, if seperated infant is distressed- easily comforted on reunion 70% had this
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What is type A attatchment?
Insecure avoidant - doesnt get distressed when seperated, comforted by stranger, shown by kids who avoid social interaction - 15%
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What is type C attatchment?
Insecure resistant - child uneasy around caregiver but upset if sepeated. comfort cant be given, often resisted from caregiver. both accpet and reject social interaction - 15%
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Explain the problem of population validity in this study
lacks it - used ameirican infants - tells us how a particular group behaves and cannot be generalsied to wider population
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Explain how the study has low ecological validity
results may not be applicable ouside the lab, environment conducted in controlled environment with 8 scripted stages
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What is a strength of this study?
easy to replicate - followes a standardized procedure inolving 8 episodes
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What did Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988) want to investigate?
Whether attatchment sytles are universal acorss cultures or culturally specific
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How did they investigate this?
Did a meta-analysis of 32 studies in 8 different coutries of the strange situation
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which attatchment was the majority of infants?
Secure 70%
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Where was the losest percentage of secure attatchments?
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Where was the highest of secure attatchments
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Why did western countries like Germany have high levels of insecure avoidant?
theyre countries which support independance
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Why did eastern countries like Japan have high levels of insecure resistant?
They are more culturally close
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What about China?
equal number of insecure avoidant/resistant
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Why can the study be criticised for using meta analysis?
Biased samples, cant claim to be representative of each culture e.g. only 36 infants used in China study which is small sample size for such a populated country
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How can the study be culturally biased?
used the starnge situation which was created and tested in USA, reflects norms and values of American culutre
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What was Bowlby's maternal deprivation hypothesis?
It suggests that continual distruption of the attatchment between infant and caregiver could result in long term cognitive, social and emotional difficulties
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What did Bowlby say was critical period?
2.5 years
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What are the effects of maternal deprivation? (ADDIDDAS)
Agression, delinquency, dwarfism, intellectual retardation, depression, dependency, affectionless psychopathy, social maladjustment
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What is affectionless psychopathy?
The inability to show affectionor concern for others
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What was Bowlby's key study?
44 juvenile theives (1944)
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What was his aim?
To investigate the long-term effects of maternal deprivation
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How did he do the study?
oppertunity sample of 88 children who attended his clinic, group 1=theif group, 31 boys, 13 girls referred to him because of stealing. group 2 - control group 34 boys 10 girls reffered for emotional problems
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What was Bowlby's findings?
14 from theft group identified as affectionless psychopaths, 12 of these had expereinced prolonged seperation within first 2 years of life. only 2 in control group had expereinced but non were affectionless psychos
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How does Harlows monkey research support Bowlby ?
he showed that monkeys reared in isolation from their mother suffered emotional and social problems in older age, monkeys never formed attatchment
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Due to Bowlbys research theory what real life applications have been made?
orphanages now have to take account of emotional needs, fostered children have to be kept in one stable home
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How does Rutter critic bowlby?
accused him of not distinguishing between deprivation and privation - the complete lack of emotinoal bond rather than loss. rutter stressed that the quality of the attatchment bond is most importnt factor
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What is institutional care?
refers to situations where children spend part of their childhood in a hospiral, orphanage orr residential home
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What did Hodges and Tizard (1988) study?
the social and emotional development of 65 children who had been in institutional care form a few months old, care provided was good quality but carers discouraged from forming attatcthments
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How many carers did the children have on average?
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Why was the study a natural experiment?
the IV (what happened to children at age 4) occured naturally
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When were the children assessed for social and emotional competence?
4, 8 and 16
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What did the assessment invovle?
interviewing children, parents and teachers and obtaining data from questionnaires
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What were the findings?
all children who spent time in institutions were more attention seeking from adults. lack of fear of strangers, lack of checking back to parental figures in stressful situations
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What are the problems with the study being a natural experiment?
extraneous variables not controleld BUT high ecological validity
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Why was attrition a problem?
llongitudinal sudy so ppts dropped out. 65 in original study and only 51 by age of 8
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Insitutionalized children dont just suffer emotional provatioin but poor physical care e..g bad diet. so....
its difficult to seperate the effects of privation and of physical care
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What did Rutter (1998) study?
Romanian orphans who had been placed in orhpanges 1-2 weeks old with minimal aldult contact
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what type of study was it?
Longitudinal study and natural experiment using a group of around 100 Romanian orphans and assesssed at ages 4,6 and 11 and reassesed at 21
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What were the three coniditons in Rutter's study?
58 babies adopted before 6 months, 59 bwetween 6-24 months and 48 babues adopted late between 2-4 years
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What happened to babies adopted by british families before 6 months?
showed 'normal' developmennt
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What happened to those adopted after 6 months?
showed disinhibited attatchmets (attention seeking towards adults, lack of fear of strangers)
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How did the study provide detailed measurements?
through interviewers and observations of childrens behaviour
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what is a problem with the study?
its not easy to find out info from instituional experience for the child and therefore we dont know the extent of early privation expereinced by these children
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What is another problem?
once the children were adopted they may not wish to take part in the study anymore so the results may not be representative
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How do childhood relationships influence adult relationships?
Bowlby our primary attatchment makes a mental representation of what a relationship is which we then use for all other relationships in the future
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what does the attatchment teory say about childhood relationships?
the child who has a secure attatchment style should be more confident in interactions with friends
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How does Minnesota's 2005 study support this view?
followerd ppts from infancy to later adolescence and found continuity beween early attatchment and later emotional/social behavior
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what does research indicate about adult relationship?
children adopt the parenting styles of their own parents. people tend to base their parenting style on the internal working model so attatchment type tends to be passed on through generations of family
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How does Bailey (2007) support this?
found that the majority of women had the same attatchment classification both to babies and their own mothers
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How does early attatchment style have a connection between quality of later romantic relationships?
internal working model - infats primary attatchment forms a model for future relationships, IVM influences a persons expectation of later relationships - affects their attitudes towards them
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what did hazan and shavers love quiz look for?
they conducted a study to collect info of ppts early attatchment styles and attitudes towards relationships
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What did the quiz find?
those who were securely attatched as infants tended to have happy lasting relationships
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What are caregiver-infant interactions?


Interactions between young babies and thei rparents are baby-led with adults repsonding to the behaviour of the baby

Card 3


What is reciprocity?


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Reciprocity A03?


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What is interational synchrony?


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