RUSSIAN POLICIES QUESTION

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  • 'Alexander II was the only Russian leader who consistently reformed to improve the lives of the Russian people'
    • Alexander ii
      • SOCIAL emancipation of the serfs
        • He tried to make this into a positive move however the negative outcomes overshadowed this sucess.
          • for example the need for redemption payments and the fact that the land given to the serf was poor quality so their quality of life and farming was not any better than before.
          • HE DID make reforms to help the russian people however they didnt always work as well as he would have hoped
      • ECONOMIC tried to modernise the economy
        • Mikhail Reutern was appointed as minister of finance. He was instructed to attract foreign investment and technical expertise into Russia
          • this was a very good move, due to Mikhail's good work the staple industries expanded rapidly, and the railway construction increased sevenfold between 1862 to 1878
      • SOCIAL reformed the education system
        • had an overhaul of the curriculum, promoted private schools and introduced an inspection system
          • this made the education a lot more effective for people and therefore more children could be educated and in time get good jobs
    • Alexander iii
      • SOCIAL Russification
        • he hoped that this policy would quell discontent among the national minority groups
      • ECONOMIC the abolition of the salt tax and the poll tax
        • both of these taxes were considered to be a burden upon the peasants so by abolishing them life for the peasants would be made slightly easier
        • a major achievement was through the introduction of the 'Medele'ev tariff', this made the surplus income
      • SOCIAL peasant land bank
        • allowed the peasants to acquire cheap loans for the purchase of land
      • SOCIAL the statute of state security law
        • stopped all kinds of meetings, allowed the police the authority to convict anyone suspected of political crimes to be exiled for up to five years, without trial
    • Nicholas ii
      • ECONOMIC the great spurt
        • coal production doubled, iron and steel production increased sevenfold
        • Count Sergei Witte. Put the rouble on the gold standard, resulting in increased investment.
      • AGRICULT the wager on the strong
        • allowed ex serfs to buy themselves out of the peasant commune and consolidate small strips of land into profit making farms
          • both made the peasants happy with new responsibilities and the chance to earn money and provided good agriculture. Because the peasants owned the farms themselves they wanted to work hard
      • SOCIAL a law standardised the working day to 11 hours
        • meant the workers got more rest and therefore were in better health to work hard
    • Provisional Government
      • SOCIAL the establishment of freedom of speech
        • allowed people the right to right and say what they wanted, gave people more of a say
          • made the people feel like their voices mattered
      • POLITICAL formed a coalition with the Petrograd Soviet
        • gave the people more a of a say in the goings on in government. Known as DUAL AUTHORITY
          • made the people feel like their voices mattered
      • SHOULD HAVE TACKLED
        • inflation, dwindling resources, lost overseas markets and loss of labour
    • Lenin
      • ECONOMIC dictatorship of the proletariat
        • introduced state capitalism, complete control of the economy by the state, before the dictatorship of the proletariat could be introduced
          • not very popular
        • this was reinforced by the decree on land, the decree on workers control and the formation of the supreme economic council which controlled means of production, distribution and exchange
      • ECONOMIC War communism
        • this was introduced by using state capitalism alongside grain requisitioning
        • the was very unpopular, especially because the cheka was being used to enforce it
    • Stalin
      • ECONOMIC the five year plans
        • gave the workers targets to achieve. made them feel motivated to achieve the goals set
          • did seem to work as production did increase
      • AGRICULT Collectivis-ation
        • brought the smaller farms together to make bigger communal farm units
          • the people HATED this, as it made them share the income and often suffer in poor working and living conditions
      • SOCIAL the great terror
        • there was a significant lack of freedom of speech
          • the use of 'show trials' and 'purges' instilled fear into the Russian people
    • Krushchev
      • SOCIAL less repressive government
        • gulags started to disappear and many political prisoners were released
        • introduced a new policing system, through MVD and KGB
      • SOCIAL provided free education for all
        • the polytechnic model was introduced
        • allowed everyone to learn no matter the class or gender
          • therefore more people were going to be able to have jobs and ultimately help the economy over time
      • AGRICULT virgin land scheme
        • this aimed to increase the amount of land to be cultivated and therefore increase the amount of production
          • the land was poor quality and often wasnt good enough to farm on due to the lack of attention to crop rotation and soail erosion
            • the people worked very hard on something that didnt work and the lack of success irritated them
      • almost all of Krushchev's policies FAILED

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