Explain why opposition to the Russian governments was so rarely successful in the period 1855-1964

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  • Created by: Paige
  • Created on: 24-05-13 17:35
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  • Explain why opposition to Russian governments was so rarely successful in the period 1855-1964
    • Oppression
      • Censorship
        • Alex 2
          • glasnost (policy of openness)
        • Alex 3
          • Clamp down on publications
            • Officials censored written materials
              • Certain newspapers, educational institutes and journals were closed down
        • Nich 2
          • reversion to glasnost
            • glasnost (policy of openness)
            • expansion of the press in 1894
              • number of different periodicals published between 1900-1914 increased threefold
                • emergence of newspapers aimed at the proletariat- the penny paper
                  • within two years it had reached a circulation of 25,000
                • political matters discussed by the Duma
                  • finer matters of debate were occasionally omitted or changed
                    • Rasputin was named as the 'dark forces near the throne'
        • World War One
          • Russians, incl. troops were subject to censorship
            • Troops at the front gained their news from foreign broadcasters
              • When the Bolsheviks seized power they abolished press freedom alltogether
                • This was done to suppress 'counter-revolutionaries'
                  • By the 1920s, reporting was totally under control, of the Bolsheviks
                    • In 1921 Agitprop was founded-its main aim was to create an idealised picture of Russian life
        • Stalin
          • By 1932, all literary groups were closed down
            • writers and publishers had to join the USW
              • By 1934 members had to produce material under the banner of 'social realism'.
          • World War Two
            • A high degree of censorship continues throughout and after the war
              • Radio airways were distorted, news was fictionalised an restrictions were put on all of the arts
        • Krushchev
          • Censorship was eased in a similar way to Alex 2 and Nich 2
            • By 1959 there were 135,000 libraries containing 8000 million books
              • This was a ten-fold increase on the numbers in 1913
  • In 1865 censorship relaxed
    • Alex 2
      • Govt. retained the right to withdraw publications containing 'dangerous orientation'
    • publishers found it relatively easy to print material that questioned the role of the government
      • Govt. retained the right to withdraw publications containing 'dangerous orientation'

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