planning research

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  • Created by: jkrodwell
  • Created on: 09-12-14 09:11
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  • Research methods: planning research
    • Hypothesis: a statement predicting the outcome of research
      • there are 2 types of hypothesis
        • alternative hypothesis: a statement which predicts a difference or correlation
        • null hypothesis: a statement which predicts no difference or correlation
    • variable: anything that is open to change
      • there are 4 types of variable
        • independent variable: something that the researcher changes or manipulates
        • dependent variable: something that the researcher measures to see a change
        • extraneous variable: a variable (which is the the independent variable) which can affect what youre measuring (the dependent variable)
          • standardisation: a way of controlling extraneous variables to keep variables the same across all conditions
        • control variable: the things you keep the same through all conditions so they dont effect the DV
    • Experimental design: a way of allocating participants to conditions in an experiment
      • there are 2 types of experimental design
        • repeated measures: where participants take part in both conditions
          • participants do condition 1 then condition 2
          • advantages
            • they are comparing the same individual so they can directly compare results
            • it is more practical. you don't need as many participants because they take part in both conditions
          • disadvantages
            • order effects. this is where the participant has had the chance to improve, so the second time they do it, they will perform better.
        • independent groups: where participants only take part in one condition
          • participants do either condition 1 or condition 2
          • Adavantages
            • there are no order effects. they do not have the chance to improve as they only take part once.
          • disadvantages
            • different people take part in the different conditions so cannot directly compare results. any differences could be down to the individual
    • target population: entire set of people researchers want to generalise their results to
      • sample: smaller group selected from the target population
        • representative: an accurate reflection of a larger group
          • target population: entire set of people researchers want to generalise their results to
            • sample: smaller group selected from the target population
              • representative: an accurate reflection of a larger group
      • 2 main sampling techniques
        • random sample: a sample for which everyone in the target population has an equal chance of being chosen
          • advantages
            • it is not bias as everyone has chance of being chosen, so usually is representative
          • disadavantages
            • possibility of drawing an unusual or unrepresentative sample
            • not always practical - especially when the target population is very large
        • opportunity sampling: a sample drawn from the population because they are available and convenient
          • advantages
            • very straight forward. its easy to conduct. simply pick the people who are available and willing
          • disadvantages
            • tends not to be representative. people who agree to take part may be more confident and do not represent the wider public
      • ethical considerations: issues of research that take into account the welfare of participants
        • informed consent: where participants agree to take part and know the aim of the study
        • right to withdraw: where participants are allowed to stop participating when they want
        • confidentiality: protecting the identity of participants by not revealing names or information

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