Planning psychological research

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  • PLANNING PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH
    • HYPOTHESES
      • NULL HYPOTHESES
        • If a prediction suggests there will be no pattern in the results
        • No difference made to the DV
        • No correlation between DV and IV
      • ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESES
        • Alternative to the null so will predict there is some pattern in results
    • VARIABLES
      • INDEPENDENT= the conditions, that will be changed
      • CO-VARIABLES= only in experiments where differences are predicted
      • DEPENDENT= what is measured as it will potentially be affected by iv
      • EXTRANEOUS= other factors that can affect the outcome, that are not  controlled
    • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS
      • INDEPENDENT MEASURES= only take part in one condition
        • + No order effects              + Task can remain the same= removes e variables
        • - Individual  differences       - More p's are needed so they can be split this needs more time and money
    • POPULATION AND SAMPLING
      • TARGET POPULATION= the group of people the psychologists are investigating
      • SAMPLING
        • RANDOM SAMPLE=  everyone in their to  has an equal chance of being selected
          • + Tends to be representative + No bias
          • - time consuming     - risk of freak sampling
        • OPPORTUNITY SAMPLE= selected as they are convenient
          • - Not representative - Bias in selection
          • + Quick and  cheap to do
  • REPEATED MEASURES= participants take place in all conditions
    • - Risk of order effects performance may strengthen if practiced         - Often tasks need to be changed so the p's don't get bored
    • + No p variables so any differences can be blamed on the participants    + It is more cost efficient
    • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS
      • INDEPENDENT MEASURES= only take part in one condition
        • + No order effects              + Task can remain the same= removes e variables
        • - Individual  differences       - More p's are needed so they can be split this needs more time and money

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