Hypothesis- A statement predicting the outcome of research eg. 'Type of uniform affects levels of obedience'
Alternate Hypothesis- A difference 'predicts a difference in results'
Null- No difference 'predicts no difference in results'
Independent Variable = Something the reseacher manipulates
Dependent Variable = Something that is measured to see if it has changed
Extraneous Variables = Variables which are not the IV *independent variable but could affect the DV if not controlled. Eg. The mood of the person in the Bickman study.
Standardisation = A way of controlling extraneous Variables; to keep variables the same across the same conditions e.g ask the same question the same way to all pps.
Repeated/Independent groups design
Experimental Design: A way of allocating participants to conditions in an experiment
Repeated measures design- An experimental design in which participants take part in each condition
Advantages of Repeated measures design:
- Using some participants for both experiments mean any differences are 'real', not due to using different people.
- You don't need to use as many participants
Disadvantages of Repeated measures design:
- Participants can under form on the second trial due to boredom or being tired. (The ORDER EFFECT)
- Participants can do better in the second trail as they may improve with practise (The ORDER EFFECT)
Independent groups design- An experimental design in which participants are different in each condition
Advantages of Independent Groups design:
- Gets rid of the order effect
Disadvantages of Independent Groups design:
- Differences recorded may be due to individual differences not the independent variable
A sample is a smaller group selected from a larger population.
Target Population is the entire set of people researchers want to generalize their results to.
Representative = An accurate reflection of a larger group
Random Sampling- A sample for which everyone in the target population has an equal chance of being chosen.
- ADVANTAGE - No bias in who is being chosen
- DISADVANTAGE - It is not always practical, especially as the population is large.
Opportunity Sampling- A sample drawn from the target population because they are available and convenient.
- ADVANTAGE - Quick and easy to use
- DISADVANTAGE - Participants are not representative, people who volunteer may be more confident than the average person.
Ethical considerations = Taking into account the welfare of pps during research
Informed Consent- When a participant agrees to take part in a study and knows what the aim of the study is
Right to withdraw- When a participant is allowed to stop participating in a study all together, at this time of decision, they should be also allowed to take any data that was collected about them away
Confidentiality- Protecting the identity of the participants, by not revealing names/other various details about them
Protection of participants:
- Participants should not be deceived... NOT EVER BE DECEIVED!!!! (about the aim or features of the study)
- Participants should not be caused discomfort or embarrassment
- Participants should not be caused unnecessary distress
- Participant should not be caused physical harm or be put at risk of harm
- Participants should generally leave a study in the same state as when they entered
Types of data...
Quantitative data = Numerical Data / Note 'quan' for quantity, so numbers
- Numerical Data that can be plotted on graphs etc.
Qualitative data = Descriptive data / Note 'lit' for literature, so words
- Descriptive data is data that summerhouses patterns and trends in Numerical Data
Mode = Most popular score in a data set
Median = The middle score when a data set is in numerical order
Mean = The total data divided by the number of scores in it
Overt Observation - To observe people with their knowledge
Advantage = More ethical because the pps have given consent
Disadvantage = pps behave differently, they know they are being watched, less realiable results, links to Observer effect
Covert Observation - To observe people without them knowing
Advantage = People behave more naturally because they don't know they are being observed
Disadvantage = Difficult to record data without being discovered, if you get a question about this, say something about the benefits of video recording the pps
Participant Observation -To observe people whilst joining into their activities
Advantage = Researcher gets to experience the situation from the pps point of view, giving more realistic results
Disadvantage = Researcher can affect the dynamics of the
Non-Partcipant Observation - To observe people from a distance
Advantage = Researcher can be more objective (notice things he/she wouldn't have if in with the group)
Disadvantage = Researcher can miss details because they are separate from the group
Questions about observations may include;
- List one Observation you'd have to carry out
- The most appropriate observation
- Write out a study plan for 5 year olds in a primary school, include observations that you'd consider
With their knowledge - Overt
Without their knowledge - Covert
Joining in with their activities - Participant
Observing from a distance - Non-participant
A Case Study is an in-depth analysis of one person or group e.g Genie the wild child or Bruce/Brenda. Methods can include looking at medical records etc
Often the individual or group is studied because it is different in some way
- ADVANTAGE - Can gather lots of information in detail
- DISADVANTAGE - Low ecological validity, can't generlise one case to everyone